• <p>START SMART: over 50% of energy used<br>
is lost as waste heat.</p>

<p class="black-text">Why pay for WASTED energy?</p>

<p>The first step to being FOSSIL FREE<br>is to REDUCE the energy we use to heat,<br>  cool and work in our buildings.</p>

<a class="sc-button sc-modal-link alignleft light" style=" width: 150px; " href="#sc-modal-window-modal1">READ MORE</a>

<div style="display: none;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div id="sc-modal-window-modal1" class="sc-modal-content entry-content content-style" style="position:relative; width:600px; height:350px;">
<h3>READ MORE: Reduce and Retire</h3>

<h1>START SMART</h1>

<p>Burning fuel to drive engines or generate steam always results in significant energy being wasted. Not only does the exhaust from burning fuel release pollutants and greenhouse gasses, there are practical and physical limits to how much of the fuel can be converted into useful work or electricity. A visual depiction of this wasted energy is shown in the energy flow diagrams published annually by Lawrence Livermore Labs in the US (See below link). In Nova Scotia, where a similar mix of fuels is employed, the proportion of waste would be similar.</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="https://flowcharts.llnl.gov/">https://flowcharts.llnl.gov/</a></h5>

<p>Typical thermal electricity plants convert only 30 to 35 % of fuel energy to electricity. Biomass plants burning wet material, like fresh cut wood fibre are less efficient as some energy in the fuel is needed to first evaporate the water in the green wood. </p> 

<p>Slightly better, combined cycle thermal plants burn fuel, typically natural gas, but add a second stage that makes use of the heat in the exhaust. These plants convert almost half of the fuel energy to electricity. New units 4,5 and 6 added to the Tuft's Cove facility in Dartmouth are of this type.</p> 

<p>Most efficient, co-generation facilities capture the heat from thermal plant exhaust and use it to heat buildings or to supply hot water and steam for domestic or industrial use. In mid latitude climates like Nova Scotia, co-generation can convert approximately 80% of fuel energy to electricity and useful heat annually.</p>

<h1>BUILD BETTER</h1>

<p>Unaccounted in energy flow analyses is the energy required to heat or cool buildings because heating or cooling is considered a useful service and not waste. In 2008 56% of commercial and residential energy use was to heat buildings (Energy Use Data Handbook, 1990 to 2008, Natural resources Canada). What if the energy to provide the actual service - personal comfort - could be greatly reduced?</p>

<p>For most buildings in Canada, this is the case. Improved building standards, careful insulation and thorough air gap sealing can dramatically reduce the amount of heat needed to keep building interiors comfortable. In new construction, it is now possible to all but eliminate the need for a heating system.</p>  

<p>Some initiatives, like LEED and R2000 programs reduce building energy by around 1/3 compared to conventional practice. See (Do LEED-certified buildings save energy? Yes, but..., NRCC-51142). Likewise, model energy codes and industry standards (ASHRAE 90.1, for example) work towards incremental reductions in building heating. Continuous improvements in the Ashrae 90.1 standard has decreased energy use levels in buildings designed to the standard 48% since 1979.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://lgstdept.wharton.upenn.edu/igel/William_Braham_May8.pdf">http://lgstdept.wharton.upenn.edu/igel/William_Braham_May8.pdf</a></h5>

<p>Within these standards, there remains room for improvement. For example, Advanced Energy Design Guides, developed by the US DOE offer 50 to 30% reductions beyond current best energy practice.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://www.energycodes.gov/advanced-energy-design-guides">http://www.energycodes.gov/advanced-energy-design-guides</a></h5>

<p>Following stricter standards can yield greater savings and because building have a very long useful life, it is important to adopt stringent standards as soon as possible. Net-zero energy initiatives and the Passivhaus standard standout as leading examples:</p>  

<h5>
Net-zero Initiatives:  <a href="http://living-future.org/lbc">http://living-future.org/lbc</a><br> 

Passivhaus Website:  <a href="http://www.passivehouse.ca/">http://www.passivehouse.ca/</a>
</h5>

<p>The Canadian Green Building Council in addition to LEED oversight in Canada works to accelerate high-performing and healthy buildings in Canada. They continue to work to improve standards, develop best practiceadvocate for green building and educate it's members and the public about sustainable design and construction.</p>

<h5>Website:  <a href="www.cagbc.org">www.cagbc.org</a></h5> 

<p>Some of the most efficient homes in Canada are built here in Nova Scotia. To learn how, explore the Canadian Solar Home Design Manual developed by and available from Solar Nova Scotia.</p>

<h5>Solar Nova Scotia Website:  <a href="http://www.solarns.ca/">http://www.solarns.ca/</a></h5> 

<h1>WORK BETTER</h1>

<p>In industry, the potential for reduced energy use is also high. Equipment is often selected for low initial cost with little consideration for it's lifetime energy use. For example, a piping system laid out for low initial cost will use small diameter pipes with straight piping runs and multiple elbows to minimize design, material and assembly cost. The result is a system that requires a powerful pump to circulate fluid through the system. The same function can be served using a small efficient pump, larger piping with care taken to minimize bends and flow restrictions. While initially more expensive, the lifetime operating cost can be dramatically reduced.</p>  

<p>Careful design can yield systems that use 1/10th the energy of traditional systems. For more information see the Rocky Mountain Institute (RMI) initiative, Factor Ten Engineering: </p>  

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.rmi.org/Knowledge-Center/Library/2010-10_10xEPrinciples">http://www.rmi.org/Knowledge-Center/Library/2010-10_10xEPrinciples</a></h5> 

<h1>SMART GROWTH</h1>

<p>Existing buildings can be renovated to use less energy. When undertaken during major maintenance or renovation activities, the additional expense can be small. For consumers to make informed choices, it is important for building energy use to be known. Building labeling programs like the Energuide Rating System and the ASHRAE Building Energy Quotient provide building owners and and renters the ability to compare choices based on energy costs.</p>  

<h5>Energuide Rating System:  <a href="http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/residential/personal/16352">http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/residential/personal/16352</a></h5>

<h5>ASHRAE Website:  <a href="http://buildingenergyquotient.org/index.html">http://buildingenergyquotient.org/index.html</a></h5>  

<h3>CLEAR THE AIR</h3>

<p>Beyond the climate effects from greenhouse gasses, our fossil fuel use produces many compounds that damage our health. While some emissions are regulated (mercury, nitrous oxides, sulpher oxides), medical studies identify significant health damage results from the fine particles that escape power plant scrubbers. In addition coal plants emit lead, cadmium, hexachlorobenzene, dioxins and furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and arsenic. Living in close proximity to coal power plants increases risks for many diseases and loads the local environment with many toxic compounds. One estimate suggests that closing coal plants in Ontario 4 years early saved 1000 lives.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://cape.ca/permalinked/capenews-winter2011-english.pdf">http://cape.ca/permalinked/capenews-winter2011-english.pdf</a></h5>

<p>In Alberta, it is estimated that coal emissions contribute to 100 premature deaths each year:</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://asthma.ca/pdf/costly-diagnosis.pdf">http://asthma.ca/pdf/costly-diagnosis.pdf</a></h5>

<p>The American Lung Association writes in their report, Toxic Air, The Case for Cleaning Up Coal-fired PowerPlants:</p>

<p>"Everyone faces increased risk of harm from exposure to these hazardous air pollutants.However, many people face greater risk because of their age, health conditions, or exposure to the pollutants. They include:</p>

<p>
• Children and teenagers;<br>
• Older adults;<br>
• Pregnant women;<br>
• People with asthma and other lung diseases;<br>
• People with cardiovascular diseases;<br>
• Diabetics;<br>
• People with low incomes;<br>
• People who work or exercise outdoors; and<br>
• Others with existing health problems."
</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.lung.org/assets/documents/healthy-air/toxic-air-report.pdf">http://www.lung.org/assets/documents/healthy-air/toxic-air-report.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.lung.org/assets/documents/healthy-air/coal-fired-plant-hazards.pdf">http://www.lung.org/assets/documents/healthy-air/coal-fired-plant-hazards.pdf</a><br>
c: <a href="http://toxtown.nlm.nih.gov/text_version/locations.php?id=155">http://toxtown.nlm.nih.gov/text_version/locations.php?id=155</a>
</h5>

<h1>USE CLEANER</h1>

<p>Natural gas, a limited resource with considerable production concerns, burns with lower GHG emissions and with much lower toxic emissions.  Natural gas plants operate more efficiently and can respond quickly to changing demand, making them a good backup power source for renewable generation, in particular wind energy.</p>

<h1>PLAN WITH CARE</h1>

<p>Converting thermal plants to burn natural gas, as has been undertaken at Tuft's Cove, can be a cost effective way to retain some fossil backup as we learn to work with renewable energy.  Likewise, new, more efficient, combustion turbines equipped with heat recovery steam generators (combined cycle plants) are more efficient, compact and economical.  Careful study is needed to identify the  best options when switching fuels.  Even in the face of natural gas price uncertainty, conversion often makes sense, (http://bv.com/Home/news/thought-leadership/energy-issues/paper-of-the-year-a-case-study-on-coal-to-natural-gas-fuel-switch).</p>

<h1>NO SILVER BULLET</h1>

<p>It is important to consider natural gas as a transition fuel to be used sparingly to support delivery of increasing quantities of renewable energy.  In particular, recently developed fracking methods to produce natural gas present many risks:</p>

<p>
• increased greenhouse gas effects from escaped natural gas (methane)<br>
• local water contamination<br>
• increased low level earthquakes<br>
• non-renewable use of fresh water resources<br>
• toxic and radioactive chemical releases<br>
• increased ecosystem disruption (high density of roads, well sites and increased local road traffic)<br>
• regulatory risks - will established regulations be monitored effectively?
</p>

<h5>RELATED LINKS</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/magazine/oct11/fracking.asp">http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/magazine/oct11/fracking.asp</a><br>
b: <a href=">http://www2.epa.gov/hfstudy">http://www2.epa.gov/hfstudy</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.nrdc.org/energy/gasdrilling/">http://www.nrdc.org/energy/gasdrilling/</a><br>
d: <a href="http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/08/130819102714.htm">http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/08/130819102714.htm</a><br>
e: <a href="http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/12/121218203537.htm">http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/12/121218203537.htm</a>
</h5>

<p></p>
<h5>If you have a comment or want to recommend a link or find a broken link, please email us:<br> 
<a href="mailto:energy@ecologyaction.ca">energy@ecologyaction.ca</a></h5>

</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>

<script type="text/javascript">
jQuery(document).ready(function() { jQuery("a.sc-modal-link").fancybox({ "hideOnContentClick": true }); });
</script>
  • <p class="black-text">We can BUILD our homes and workplaces<br> much BETTER. </p>

<p>Traditional buildings can use 80% less <br>heat with thick insulation, superior windows <br>and thorough sealing.</p>

<a class="sc-button sc-modal-link alignleft light" style=" width: 150px; " href="#sc-modal-window-modal2">READ MORE</a>

<div style="display: none;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div id="sc-modal-window-modal2" class="sc-modal-content entry-content content-style" style="position:relative; width:600px; height:350px;">
<h3>READ MORE: Reduce and Retire</h3>

<h1>START SMART</h1>

<p>Burning fuel to drive engines or generate steam always results in significant energy being wasted. Not only does the exhaust from burning fuel release pollutants and greenhouse gasses, there are practical and physical limits to how much of the fuel can be converted into useful work or electricity. A visual depiction of this wasted energy is shown in the energy flow diagrams published annually by Lawrence Livermore Labs in the US (See below link). In Nova Scotia, where a similar mix of fuels is employed, the proportion of waste would be similar.</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="https://flowcharts.llnl.gov/">https://flowcharts.llnl.gov/</a></h5>

<p>Typical thermal electricity plants convert only 30 to 35 % of fuel energy to electricity. Biomass plants burning wet material, like fresh cut wood fibre are less efficient as some energy in the fuel is needed to first evaporate the water in the green wood. </p> 

<p>Slightly better, combined cycle thermal plants burn fuel, typically natural gas, but add a second stage that makes use of the heat in the exhaust. These plants convert almost half of the fuel energy to electricity. New units 4,5 and 6 added to the Tuft's Cove facility in Dartmouth are of this type.</p> 

<p>Most efficient, co-generation facilities capture the heat from thermal plant exhaust and use it to heat buildings or to supply hot water and steam for domestic or industrial use. In mid latitude climates like Nova Scotia, co-generation can convert approximately 80% of fuel energy to electricity and useful heat annually.</p>

<h1>BUILD BETTER</h1>

<p>Unaccounted in energy flow analyses is the energy required to heat or cool buildings because heating or cooling is considered a useful service and not waste. In 2008 56% of commercial and residential energy use was to heat buildings (Energy Use Data Handbook, 1990 to 2008, Natural resources Canada). What if the energy to provide the actual service - personal comfort - could be greatly reduced?</p>

<p>For most buildings in Canada, this is the case. Improved building standards, careful insulation and thorough air gap sealing can dramatically reduce the amount of heat needed to keep building interiors comfortable. In new construction, it is now possible to all but eliminate the need for a heating system.</p>  

<p>Some initiatives, like LEED and R2000 programs reduce building energy by around 1/3 compared to conventional practice. See (Do LEED-certified buildings save energy? Yes, but..., NRCC-51142). Likewise, model energy codes and industry standards (ASHRAE 90.1, for example) work towards incremental reductions in building heating. Continuous improvements in the Ashrae 90.1 standard has decreased energy use levels in buildings designed to the standard 48% since 1979.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://lgstdept.wharton.upenn.edu/igel/William_Braham_May8.pdf">http://lgstdept.wharton.upenn.edu/igel/William_Braham_May8.pdf</a></h5>

<p>Within these standards, there remains room for improvement. For example, Advanced Energy Design Guides, developed by the US DOE offer 50 to 30% reductions beyond current best energy practice.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://www.energycodes.gov/advanced-energy-design-guides">http://www.energycodes.gov/advanced-energy-design-guides</a></h5>

<p>Following stricter standards can yield greater savings and because building have a very long useful life, it is important to adopt stringent standards as soon as possible. Net-zero energy initiatives and the Passivhaus standard standout as leading examples:</p>  

<h5>
Net-zero Initiatives:  <a href="http://living-future.org/lbc">http://living-future.org/lbc</a><br> 

Passivhaus Website:  <a href="http://www.passivehouse.ca/">http://www.passivehouse.ca/</a>
</h5>

<p>The Canadian Green Building Council in addition to LEED oversight in Canada works to accelerate high-performing and healthy buildings in Canada. They continue to work to improve standards, develop best practiceadvocate for green building and educate it's members and the public about sustainable design and construction.</p>

<h5>Website:  <a href="www.cagbc.org">www.cagbc.org</a></h5> 

<p>Some of the most efficient homes in Canada are built here in Nova Scotia. To learn how, explore the Canadian Solar Home Design Manual developed by and available from Solar Nova Scotia.</p>

<h5>Solar Nova Scotia Website:  <a href="http://www.solarns.ca/">http://www.solarns.ca/</a></h5> 

<h1>WORK BETTER</h1>

<p>In industry, the potential for reduced energy use is also high. Equipment is often selected for low initial cost with little consideration for it's lifetime energy use. For example, a piping system laid out for low initial cost will use small diameter pipes with straight piping runs and multiple elbows to minimize design, material and assembly cost. The result is a system that requires a powerful pump to circulate fluid through the system. The same function can be served using a small efficient pump, larger piping with care taken to minimize bends and flow restrictions. While initially more expensive, the lifetime operating cost can be dramatically reduced.</p>  

<p>Careful design can yield systems that use 1/10th the energy of traditional systems. For more information see the Rocky Mountain Institute (RMI) initiative, Factor Ten Engineering: </p>  

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.rmi.org/Knowledge-Center/Library/2010-10_10xEPrinciples">http://www.rmi.org/Knowledge-Center/Library/2010-10_10xEPrinciples</a></h5> 

<h1>SMART GROWTH</h1>

<p>Existing buildings can be renovated to use less energy. When undertaken during major maintenance or renovation activities, the additional expense can be small. For consumers to make informed choices, it is important for building energy use to be known. Building labeling programs like the Energuide Rating System and the ASHRAE Building Energy Quotient provide building owners and and renters the ability to compare choices based on energy costs.</p>  

<h5>Energuide Rating System:  <a href="http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/residential/personal/16352">http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/residential/personal/16352</a></h5>

<h5>ASHRAE Website:  <a href="http://buildingenergyquotient.org/index.html">http://buildingenergyquotient.org/index.html</a></h5>  

<h3>CLEAR THE AIR</h3>

<p>Beyond the climate effects from greenhouse gasses, our fossil fuel use produces many compounds that damage our health. While some emissions are regulated (mercury, nitrous oxides, sulpher oxides), medical studies identify significant health damage results from the fine particles that escape power plant scrubbers. In addition coal plants emit lead, cadmium, hexachlorobenzene, dioxins and furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and arsenic. Living in close proximity to coal power plants increases risks for many diseases and loads the local environment with many toxic compounds. One estimate suggests that closing coal plants in Ontario 4 years early saved 1000 lives.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://cape.ca/permalinked/capenews-winter2011-english.pdf">http://cape.ca/permalinked/capenews-winter2011-english.pdf</a></h5>

<p>In Alberta, it is estimated that coal emissions contribute to 100 premature deaths each year:</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://asthma.ca/pdf/costly-diagnosis.pdf">http://asthma.ca/pdf/costly-diagnosis.pdf</a></h5>

<p>The American Lung Association writes in their report, Toxic Air, The Case for Cleaning Up Coal-fired PowerPlants:</p>

<p>"Everyone faces increased risk of harm from exposure to these hazardous air pollutants.However, many people face greater risk because of their age, health conditions, or exposure to the pollutants. They include:</p>

<p>
• Children and teenagers;<br>
• Older adults;<br>
• Pregnant women;<br>
• People with asthma and other lung diseases;<br>
• People with cardiovascular diseases;<br>
• Diabetics;<br>
• People with low incomes;<br>
• People who work or exercise outdoors; and<br>
• Others with existing health problems."
</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.lung.org/assets/documents/healthy-air/toxic-air-report.pdf">http://www.lung.org/assets/documents/healthy-air/toxic-air-report.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.lung.org/assets/documents/healthy-air/coal-fired-plant-hazards.pdf">http://www.lung.org/assets/documents/healthy-air/coal-fired-plant-hazards.pdf</a><br>
c: <a href="http://toxtown.nlm.nih.gov/text_version/locations.php?id=155">http://toxtown.nlm.nih.gov/text_version/locations.php?id=155</a>
</h5>

<h1>USE CLEANER</h1>

<p>Natural gas, a limited resource with considerable production concerns, burns with lower GHG emissions and with much lower toxic emissions.  Natural gas plants operate more efficiently and can respond quickly to changing demand, making them a good backup power source for renewable generation, in particular wind energy.</p>

<h1>PLAN WITH CARE</h1>

<p>Converting thermal plants to burn natural gas, as has been undertaken at Tuft's Cove, can be a cost effective way to retain some fossil backup as we learn to work with renewable energy.  Likewise, new, more efficient, combustion turbines equipped with heat recovery steam generators (combined cycle plants) are more efficient, compact and economical.  Careful study is needed to identify the  best options when switching fuels.  Even in the face of natural gas price uncertainty, conversion often makes sense, (http://bv.com/Home/news/thought-leadership/energy-issues/paper-of-the-year-a-case-study-on-coal-to-natural-gas-fuel-switch).</p>

<h1>NO SILVER BULLET</h1>

<p>It is important to consider natural gas as a transition fuel to be used sparingly to support delivery of increasing quantities of renewable energy.  In particular, recently developed fracking methods to produce natural gas present many risks:</p>

<p>
• increased greenhouse gas effects from escaped natural gas (methane)<br>
• local water contamination<br>
• increased low level earthquakes<br>
• non-renewable use of fresh water resources<br>
• toxic and radioactive chemical releases<br>
• increased ecosystem disruption (high density of roads, well sites and increased local road traffic)<br>
• regulatory risks - will established regulations be monitored effectively?
</p>

<h5>RELATED LINKS</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/magazine/oct11/fracking.asp">http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/magazine/oct11/fracking.asp</a><br>
b: <a href=">http://www2.epa.gov/hfstudy">http://www2.epa.gov/hfstudy</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.nrdc.org/energy/gasdrilling/">http://www.nrdc.org/energy/gasdrilling/</a><br>
d: <a href="http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/08/130819102714.htm">http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/08/130819102714.htm</a><br>
e: <a href="http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/12/121218203537.htm">http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/12/121218203537.htm</a>
</h5>

<p></p>
<h5>If you have a comment or want to recommend a link or find a broken link, please email us:<br> 
<a href="mailto:energy@ecologyaction.ca">energy@ecologyaction.ca</a></h5>

</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>

<script type="text/javascript">
jQuery(document).ready(function() { jQuery("a.sc-modal-link").fancybox({ "hideOnContentClick": true }); });
</script>
  • <p class="black-text">At home or at work, we can get BETTER<br>at how we USE energy.</p>

<p>Heat pumps are over TWICE as efficient<br>as simple electric heaters.</p>

<p>Designing equipment for low energy use<br>can reduce energy costs by 90%.</p>

<a class="sc-button sc-modal-link alignleft light" style=" width: 150px; " href="#sc-modal-window-modal4">READ MORE</a>

<div style="display: none;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div id="sc-modal-window-modal4" class="sc-modal-content entry-content content-style" style="position:relative; width:600px; height:350px;">
<h3>READ MORE: Reduce and Retire</h3>

<h1>START SMART</h1>

<p>Burning fuel to drive engines or generate steam always results in significant energy being wasted. Not only does the exhaust from burning fuel release pollutants and greenhouse gasses, there are practical and physical limits to how much of the fuel can be converted into useful work or electricity. A visual depiction of this wasted energy is shown in the energy flow diagrams published annually by Lawrence Livermore Labs in the US (See below link). In Nova Scotia, where a similar mix of fuels is employed, the proportion of waste would be similar.</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="https://flowcharts.llnl.gov/">https://flowcharts.llnl.gov/</a></h5>

<p>Typical thermal electricity plants convert only 30 to 35 % of fuel energy to electricity. Biomass plants burning wet material, like fresh cut wood fibre are less efficient as some energy in the fuel is needed to first evaporate the water in the green wood. </p> 

<p>Slightly better, combined cycle thermal plants burn fuel, typically natural gas, but add a second stage that makes use of the heat in the exhaust. These plants convert almost half of the fuel energy to electricity. New units 4,5 and 6 added to the Tuft's Cove facility in Dartmouth are of this type.</p> 

<p>Most efficient, co-generation facilities capture the heat from thermal plant exhaust and use it to heat buildings or to supply hot water and steam for domestic or industrial use. In mid latitude climates like Nova Scotia, co-generation can convert approximately 80% of fuel energy to electricity and useful heat annually.</p>

<h1>BUILD BETTER</h1>

<p>Unaccounted in energy flow analyses is the energy required to heat or cool buildings because heating or cooling is considered a useful service and not waste. In 2008 56% of commercial and residential energy use was to heat buildings (Energy Use Data Handbook, 1990 to 2008, Natural resources Canada). What if the energy to provide the actual service - personal comfort - could be greatly reduced?</p>

<p>For most buildings in Canada, this is the case. Improved building standards, careful insulation and thorough air gap sealing can dramatically reduce the amount of heat needed to keep building interiors comfortable. In new construction, it is now possible to all but eliminate the need for a heating system.</p>  

<p>Some initiatives, like LEED and R2000 programs reduce building energy by around 1/3 compared to conventional practice. See (Do LEED-certified buildings save energy? Yes, but..., NRCC-51142). Likewise, model energy codes and industry standards (ASHRAE 90.1, for example) work towards incremental reductions in building heating. Continuous improvements in the Ashrae 90.1 standard has decreased energy use levels in buildings designed to the standard 48% since 1979.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://lgstdept.wharton.upenn.edu/igel/William_Braham_May8.pdf">http://lgstdept.wharton.upenn.edu/igel/William_Braham_May8.pdf</a></h5>

<p>Within these standards, there remains room for improvement. For example, Advanced Energy Design Guides, developed by the US DOE offer 50 to 30% reductions beyond current best energy practice.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://www.energycodes.gov/advanced-energy-design-guides">http://www.energycodes.gov/advanced-energy-design-guides</a></h5>

<p>Following stricter standards can yield greater savings and because building have a very long useful life, it is important to adopt stringent standards as soon as possible. Net-zero energy initiatives and the Passivhaus standard standout as leading examples:</p>  

<h5>
Net-zero Initiatives:  <a href="http://living-future.org/lbc">http://living-future.org/lbc</a><br> 

Passivhaus Website:  <a href="http://www.passivehouse.ca/">http://www.passivehouse.ca/</a>
</h5>

<p>The Canadian Green Building Council in addition to LEED oversight in Canada works to accelerate high-performing and healthy buildings in Canada. They continue to work to improve standards, develop best practiceadvocate for green building and educate it's members and the public about sustainable design and construction.</p>

<h5>Website:  <a href="www.cagbc.org">www.cagbc.org</a></h5> 

<p>Some of the most efficient homes in Canada are built here in Nova Scotia. To learn how, explore the Canadian Solar Home Design Manual developed by and available from Solar Nova Scotia.</p>

<h5>Solar Nova Scotia Website:  <a href="http://www.solarns.ca/">http://www.solarns.ca/</a></h5> 

<h1>WORK BETTER</h1>

<p>In industry, the potential for reduced energy use is also high. Equipment is often selected for low initial cost with little consideration for it's lifetime energy use. For example, a piping system laid out for low initial cost will use small diameter pipes with straight piping runs and multiple elbows to minimize design, material and assembly cost. The result is a system that requires a powerful pump to circulate fluid through the system. The same function can be served using a small efficient pump, larger piping with care taken to minimize bends and flow restrictions. While initially more expensive, the lifetime operating cost can be dramatically reduced.</p>  

<p>Careful design can yield systems that use 1/10th the energy of traditional systems. For more information see the Rocky Mountain Institute (RMI) initiative, Factor Ten Engineering: </p>  

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.rmi.org/Knowledge-Center/Library/2010-10_10xEPrinciples">http://www.rmi.org/Knowledge-Center/Library/2010-10_10xEPrinciples</a></h5> 

<h1>SMART GROWTH</h1>

<p>Existing buildings can be renovated to use less energy. When undertaken during major maintenance or renovation activities, the additional expense can be small. For consumers to make informed choices, it is important for building energy use to be known. Building labeling programs like the Energuide Rating System and the ASHRAE Building Energy Quotient provide building owners and and renters the ability to compare choices based on energy costs.</p>  

<h5>Energuide Rating System:  <a href="http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/residential/personal/16352">http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/residential/personal/16352</a></h5>

<h5>ASHRAE Website:  <a href="http://buildingenergyquotient.org/index.html">http://buildingenergyquotient.org/index.html</a></h5>  

<h3>CLEAR THE AIR</h3>

<p>Beyond the climate effects from greenhouse gasses, our fossil fuel use produces many compounds that damage our health. While some emissions are regulated (mercury, nitrous oxides, sulpher oxides), medical studies identify significant health damage results from the fine particles that escape power plant scrubbers. In addition coal plants emit lead, cadmium, hexachlorobenzene, dioxins and furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and arsenic. Living in close proximity to coal power plants increases risks for many diseases and loads the local environment with many toxic compounds. One estimate suggests that closing coal plants in Ontario 4 years early saved 1000 lives.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://cape.ca/permalinked/capenews-winter2011-english.pdf">http://cape.ca/permalinked/capenews-winter2011-english.pdf</a></h5>

<p>In Alberta, it is estimated that coal emissions contribute to 100 premature deaths each year:</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://asthma.ca/pdf/costly-diagnosis.pdf">http://asthma.ca/pdf/costly-diagnosis.pdf</a></h5>

<p>The American Lung Association writes in their report, Toxic Air, The Case for Cleaning Up Coal-fired PowerPlants:</p>

<p>"Everyone faces increased risk of harm from exposure to these hazardous air pollutants.However, many people face greater risk because of their age, health conditions, or exposure to the pollutants. They include:</p>

<p>
• Children and teenagers;<br>
• Older adults;<br>
• Pregnant women;<br>
• People with asthma and other lung diseases;<br>
• People with cardiovascular diseases;<br>
• Diabetics;<br>
• People with low incomes;<br>
• People who work or exercise outdoors; and<br>
• Others with existing health problems."
</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.lung.org/assets/documents/healthy-air/toxic-air-report.pdf">http://www.lung.org/assets/documents/healthy-air/toxic-air-report.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.lung.org/assets/documents/healthy-air/coal-fired-plant-hazards.pdf">http://www.lung.org/assets/documents/healthy-air/coal-fired-plant-hazards.pdf</a><br>
c: <a href="http://toxtown.nlm.nih.gov/text_version/locations.php?id=155">http://toxtown.nlm.nih.gov/text_version/locations.php?id=155</a>
</h5>

<h1>USE CLEANER</h1>

<p>Natural gas, a limited resource with considerable production concerns, burns with lower GHG emissions and with much lower toxic emissions.  Natural gas plants operate more efficiently and can respond quickly to changing demand, making them a good backup power source for renewable generation, in particular wind energy.</p>

<h1>PLAN WITH CARE</h1>

<p>Converting thermal plants to burn natural gas, as has been undertaken at Tuft's Cove, can be a cost effective way to retain some fossil backup as we learn to work with renewable energy.  Likewise, new, more efficient, combustion turbines equipped with heat recovery steam generators (combined cycle plants) are more efficient, compact and economical.  Careful study is needed to identify the  best options when switching fuels.  Even in the face of natural gas price uncertainty, conversion often makes sense, (http://bv.com/Home/news/thought-leadership/energy-issues/paper-of-the-year-a-case-study-on-coal-to-natural-gas-fuel-switch).</p>

<h1>NO SILVER BULLET</h1>

<p>It is important to consider natural gas as a transition fuel to be used sparingly to support delivery of increasing quantities of renewable energy.  In particular, recently developed fracking methods to produce natural gas present many risks:</p>

<p>
• increased greenhouse gas effects from escaped natural gas (methane)<br>
• local water contamination<br>
• increased low level earthquakes<br>
• non-renewable use of fresh water resources<br>
• toxic and radioactive chemical releases<br>
• increased ecosystem disruption (high density of roads, well sites and increased local road traffic)<br>
• regulatory risks - will established regulations be monitored effectively?
</p>

<h5>RELATED LINKS</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/magazine/oct11/fracking.asp">http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/magazine/oct11/fracking.asp</a><br>
b: <a href=">http://www2.epa.gov/hfstudy">http://www2.epa.gov/hfstudy</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.nrdc.org/energy/gasdrilling/">http://www.nrdc.org/energy/gasdrilling/</a><br>
d: <a href="http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/08/130819102714.htm">http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/08/130819102714.htm</a><br>
e: <a href="http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/12/121218203537.htm">http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/12/121218203537.htm</a>
</h5>

<p></p>
<h5>If you have a comment or want to recommend a link or find a broken link, please email us:<br> 
<a href="mailto:energy@ecologyaction.ca">energy@ecologyaction.ca</a></h5>

</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>

<script type="text/javascript">
jQuery(document).ready(function() { jQuery("a.sc-modal-link").fancybox({ "hideOnContentClick": true }); });
</script>
  • <p class="black-text">A growing economy doesn’t mean <br>a growing fuel bill.</p>

<p>We can protect our economic GROWTH from<br>rising energy costs by SMART investment<br>in efficency when starting a new business<br>or building a new home.</p>

<a class="sc-button sc-modal-link alignleft light" style=" width: 150px; " href="#sc-modal-window-modal4">READ MORE</a>

<div style="display: none;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div id="sc-modal-window-modal4" class="sc-modal-content entry-content content-style" style="position:relative; width:600px; height:350px;">
<h3>READ MORE: Reduce and Retire</h3>

<h1>START SMART</h1>

<p>Burning fuel to drive engines or generate steam always results in significant energy being wasted. Not only does the exhaust from burning fuel release pollutants and greenhouse gasses, there are practical and physical limits to how much of the fuel can be converted into useful work or electricity. A visual depiction of this wasted energy is shown in the energy flow diagrams published annually by Lawrence Livermore Labs in the US (See below link). In Nova Scotia, where a similar mix of fuels is employed, the proportion of waste would be similar.</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="https://flowcharts.llnl.gov/">https://flowcharts.llnl.gov/</a></h5>

<p>Typical thermal electricity plants convert only 30 to 35 % of fuel energy to electricity. Biomass plants burning wet material, like fresh cut wood fibre are less efficient as some energy in the fuel is needed to first evaporate the water in the green wood. </p> 

<p>Slightly better, combined cycle thermal plants burn fuel, typically natural gas, but add a second stage that makes use of the heat in the exhaust. These plants convert almost half of the fuel energy to electricity. New units 4,5 and 6 added to the Tuft's Cove facility in Dartmouth are of this type.</p> 

<p>Most efficient, co-generation facilities capture the heat from thermal plant exhaust and use it to heat buildings or to supply hot water and steam for domestic or industrial use. In mid latitude climates like Nova Scotia, co-generation can convert approximately 80% of fuel energy to electricity and useful heat annually.</p>

<h1>BUILD BETTER</h1>

<p>Unaccounted in energy flow analyses is the energy required to heat or cool buildings because heating or cooling is considered a useful service and not waste. In 2008 56% of commercial and residential energy use was to heat buildings (Energy Use Data Handbook, 1990 to 2008, Natural resources Canada). What if the energy to provide the actual service - personal comfort - could be greatly reduced?</p>

<p>For most buildings in Canada, this is the case. Improved building standards, careful insulation and thorough air gap sealing can dramatically reduce the amount of heat needed to keep building interiors comfortable. In new construction, it is now possible to all but eliminate the need for a heating system.</p>  

<p>Some initiatives, like LEED and R2000 programs reduce building energy by around 1/3 compared to conventional practice. See (Do LEED-certified buildings save energy? Yes, but..., NRCC-51142). Likewise, model energy codes and industry standards (ASHRAE 90.1, for example) work towards incremental reductions in building heating. Continuous improvements in the Ashrae 90.1 standard has decreased energy use levels in buildings designed to the standard 48% since 1979.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://lgstdept.wharton.upenn.edu/igel/William_Braham_May8.pdf">http://lgstdept.wharton.upenn.edu/igel/William_Braham_May8.pdf</a></h5>

<p>Within these standards, there remains room for improvement. For example, Advanced Energy Design Guides, developed by the US DOE offer 50 to 30% reductions beyond current best energy practice.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://www.energycodes.gov/advanced-energy-design-guides">http://www.energycodes.gov/advanced-energy-design-guides</a></h5>

<p>Following stricter standards can yield greater savings and because building have a very long useful life, it is important to adopt stringent standards as soon as possible. Net-zero energy initiatives and the Passivhaus standard standout as leading examples:</p>  

<h5>
Net-zero Initiatives:  <a href="http://living-future.org/lbc">http://living-future.org/lbc</a><br> 

Passivhaus Website:  <a href="http://www.passivehouse.ca/">http://www.passivehouse.ca/</a>
</h5>

<p>The Canadian Green Building Council in addition to LEED oversight in Canada works to accelerate high-performing and healthy buildings in Canada. They continue to work to improve standards, develop best practiceadvocate for green building and educate it's members and the public about sustainable design and construction.</p>

<h5>Website:  <a href="www.cagbc.org">www.cagbc.org</a></h5> 

<p>Some of the most efficient homes in Canada are built here in Nova Scotia. To learn how, explore the Canadian Solar Home Design Manual developed by and available from Solar Nova Scotia.</p>

<h5>Solar Nova Scotia Website:  <a href="http://www.solarns.ca/">http://www.solarns.ca/</a></h5> 

<h1>WORK BETTER</h1>

<p>In industry, the potential for reduced energy use is also high. Equipment is often selected for low initial cost with little consideration for it's lifetime energy use. For example, a piping system laid out for low initial cost will use small diameter pipes with straight piping runs and multiple elbows to minimize design, material and assembly cost. The result is a system that requires a powerful pump to circulate fluid through the system. The same function can be served using a small efficient pump, larger piping with care taken to minimize bends and flow restrictions. While initially more expensive, the lifetime operating cost can be dramatically reduced.</p>  

<p>Careful design can yield systems that use 1/10th the energy of traditional systems. For more information see the Rocky Mountain Institute (RMI) initiative, Factor Ten Engineering: </p>  

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.rmi.org/Knowledge-Center/Library/2010-10_10xEPrinciples">http://www.rmi.org/Knowledge-Center/Library/2010-10_10xEPrinciples</a></h5> 

<h1>SMART GROWTH</h1>

<p>Existing buildings can be renovated to use less energy. When undertaken during major maintenance or renovation activities, the additional expense can be small. For consumers to make informed choices, it is important for building energy use to be known. Building labeling programs like the Energuide Rating System and the ASHRAE Building Energy Quotient provide building owners and and renters the ability to compare choices based on energy costs.</p>  

<h5>Energuide Rating System:  <a href="http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/residential/personal/16352">http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/residential/personal/16352</a></h5>

<h5>ASHRAE Website:  <a href="http://buildingenergyquotient.org/index.html">http://buildingenergyquotient.org/index.html</a></h5>  

<h3>CLEAR THE AIR</h3>

<p>Beyond the climate effects from greenhouse gasses, our fossil fuel use produces many compounds that damage our health. While some emissions are regulated (mercury, nitrous oxides, sulpher oxides), medical studies identify significant health damage results from the fine particles that escape power plant scrubbers. In addition coal plants emit lead, cadmium, hexachlorobenzene, dioxins and furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and arsenic. Living in close proximity to coal power plants increases risks for many diseases and loads the local environment with many toxic compounds. One estimate suggests that closing coal plants in Ontario 4 years early saved 1000 lives.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://cape.ca/permalinked/capenews-winter2011-english.pdf">http://cape.ca/permalinked/capenews-winter2011-english.pdf</a></h5>

<p>In Alberta, it is estimated that coal emissions contribute to 100 premature deaths each year:</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://asthma.ca/pdf/costly-diagnosis.pdf">http://asthma.ca/pdf/costly-diagnosis.pdf</a></h5>

<p>The American Lung Association writes in their report, Toxic Air, The Case for Cleaning Up Coal-fired PowerPlants:</p>

<p>"Everyone faces increased risk of harm from exposure to these hazardous air pollutants.However, many people face greater risk because of their age, health conditions, or exposure to the pollutants. They include:</p>

<p>
• Children and teenagers;<br>
• Older adults;<br>
• Pregnant women;<br>
• People with asthma and other lung diseases;<br>
• People with cardiovascular diseases;<br>
• Diabetics;<br>
• People with low incomes;<br>
• People who work or exercise outdoors; and<br>
• Others with existing health problems."
</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.lung.org/assets/documents/healthy-air/toxic-air-report.pdf">http://www.lung.org/assets/documents/healthy-air/toxic-air-report.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.lung.org/assets/documents/healthy-air/coal-fired-plant-hazards.pdf">http://www.lung.org/assets/documents/healthy-air/coal-fired-plant-hazards.pdf</a><br>
c: <a href="http://toxtown.nlm.nih.gov/text_version/locations.php?id=155">http://toxtown.nlm.nih.gov/text_version/locations.php?id=155</a>
</h5>

<h1>USE CLEANER</h1>

<p>Natural gas, a limited resource with considerable production concerns, burns with lower GHG emissions and with much lower toxic emissions.  Natural gas plants operate more efficiently and can respond quickly to changing demand, making them a good backup power source for renewable generation, in particular wind energy.</p>

<h1>PLAN WITH CARE</h1>

<p>Converting thermal plants to burn natural gas, as has been undertaken at Tuft's Cove, can be a cost effective way to retain some fossil backup as we learn to work with renewable energy.  Likewise, new, more efficient, combustion turbines equipped with heat recovery steam generators (combined cycle plants) are more efficient, compact and economical.  Careful study is needed to identify the  best options when switching fuels.  Even in the face of natural gas price uncertainty, conversion often makes sense, (http://bv.com/Home/news/thought-leadership/energy-issues/paper-of-the-year-a-case-study-on-coal-to-natural-gas-fuel-switch).</p>

<h1>NO SILVER BULLET</h1>

<p>It is important to consider natural gas as a transition fuel to be used sparingly to support delivery of increasing quantities of renewable energy.  In particular, recently developed fracking methods to produce natural gas present many risks:</p>

<p>
• increased greenhouse gas effects from escaped natural gas (methane)<br>
• local water contamination<br>
• increased low level earthquakes<br>
• non-renewable use of fresh water resources<br>
• toxic and radioactive chemical releases<br>
• increased ecosystem disruption (high density of roads, well sites and increased local road traffic)<br>
• regulatory risks - will established regulations be monitored effectively?
</p>

<h5>RELATED LINKS</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/magazine/oct11/fracking.asp">http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/magazine/oct11/fracking.asp</a><br>
b: <a href=">http://www2.epa.gov/hfstudy">http://www2.epa.gov/hfstudy</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.nrdc.org/energy/gasdrilling/">http://www.nrdc.org/energy/gasdrilling/</a><br>
d: <a href="http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/08/130819102714.htm">http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/08/130819102714.htm</a><br>
e: <a href="http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/12/121218203537.htm">http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/12/121218203537.htm</a>
</h5>

<p></p>
<h5>If you have a comment or want to recommend a link or find a broken link, please email us:<br> 
<a href="mailto:energy@ecologyaction.ca">energy@ecologyaction.ca</a></h5>

</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>

<script type="text/javascript">
jQuery(document).ready(function() { jQuery("a.sc-modal-link").fancybox({ "hideOnContentClick": true }); });
</script>
  • <p class="black-text">Our second step to FOSSIL FREE<br>is to CLEAR the AIR.</p>

<p>We can RETIRE coal plants and ramp up renewable power but it will take time.</p>

<p class="black-text">We need to START now.</p>

<a class="sc-button sc-modal-link alignleft light" style=" width: 150px; " href="#sc-modal-window-modal5">READ MORE</a>

<div style="display: none;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div id="sc-modal-window-modal5" class="sc-modal-content entry-content content-style" style="position:relative; width:600px; height:350px;">
<h3>READ MORE: Reduce and Retire</h3>

<h1>START SMART</h1>

<p>Burning fuel to drive engines or generate steam always results in significant energy being wasted. Not only does the exhaust from burning fuel release pollutants and greenhouse gasses, there are practical and physical limits to how much of the fuel can be converted into useful work or electricity. A visual depiction of this wasted energy is shown in the energy flow diagrams published annually by Lawrence Livermore Labs in the US (See below link). In Nova Scotia, where a similar mix of fuels is employed, the proportion of waste would be similar.</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="https://flowcharts.llnl.gov/">https://flowcharts.llnl.gov/</a></h5>

<p>Typical thermal electricity plants convert only 30 to 35 % of fuel energy to electricity. Biomass plants burning wet material, like fresh cut wood fibre are less efficient as some energy in the fuel is needed to first evaporate the water in the green wood. </p> 

<p>Slightly better, combined cycle thermal plants burn fuel, typically natural gas, but add a second stage that makes use of the heat in the exhaust. These plants convert almost half of the fuel energy to electricity. New units 4,5 and 6 added to the Tuft's Cove facility in Dartmouth are of this type.</p> 

<p>Most efficient, co-generation facilities capture the heat from thermal plant exhaust and use it to heat buildings or to supply hot water and steam for domestic or industrial use. In mid latitude climates like Nova Scotia, co-generation can convert approximately 80% of fuel energy to electricity and useful heat annually.</p>

<h1>BUILD BETTER</h1>

<p>Unaccounted in energy flow analyses is the energy required to heat or cool buildings because heating or cooling is considered a useful service and not waste. In 2008 56% of commercial and residential energy use was to heat buildings (Energy Use Data Handbook, 1990 to 2008, Natural resources Canada). What if the energy to provide the actual service - personal comfort - could be greatly reduced?</p>

<p>For most buildings in Canada, this is the case. Improved building standards, careful insulation and thorough air gap sealing can dramatically reduce the amount of heat needed to keep building interiors comfortable. In new construction, it is now possible to all but eliminate the need for a heating system.</p>  

<p>Some initiatives, like LEED and R2000 programs reduce building energy by around 1/3 compared to conventional practice. See (Do LEED-certified buildings save energy? Yes, but..., NRCC-51142). Likewise, model energy codes and industry standards (ASHRAE 90.1, for example) work towards incremental reductions in building heating. Continuous improvements in the Ashrae 90.1 standard has decreased energy use levels in buildings designed to the standard 48% since 1979.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://lgstdept.wharton.upenn.edu/igel/William_Braham_May8.pdf">http://lgstdept.wharton.upenn.edu/igel/William_Braham_May8.pdf</a></h5>

<p>Within these standards, there remains room for improvement. For example, Advanced Energy Design Guides, developed by the US DOE offer 50 to 30% reductions beyond current best energy practice.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://www.energycodes.gov/advanced-energy-design-guides">http://www.energycodes.gov/advanced-energy-design-guides</a></h5>

<p>Following stricter standards can yield greater savings and because building have a very long useful life, it is important to adopt stringent standards as soon as possible. Net-zero energy initiatives and the Passivhaus standard standout as leading examples:</p>  

<h5>
Net-zero Initiatives:  <a href="http://living-future.org/lbc">http://living-future.org/lbc</a><br> 

Passivhaus Website:  <a href="http://www.passivehouse.ca/">http://www.passivehouse.ca/</a>
</h5>

<p>The Canadian Green Building Council in addition to LEED oversight in Canada works to accelerate high-performing and healthy buildings in Canada. They continue to work to improve standards, develop best practiceadvocate for green building and educate it's members and the public about sustainable design and construction.</p>

<h5>Website:  <a href="www.cagbc.org">www.cagbc.org</a></h5> 

<p>Some of the most efficient homes in Canada are built here in Nova Scotia. To learn how, explore the Canadian Solar Home Design Manual developed by and available from Solar Nova Scotia.</p>

<h5>Solar Nova Scotia Website:  <a href="http://www.solarns.ca/">http://www.solarns.ca/</a></h5> 

<h1>WORK BETTER</h1>

<p>In industry, the potential for reduced energy use is also high. Equipment is often selected for low initial cost with little consideration for it's lifetime energy use. For example, a piping system laid out for low initial cost will use small diameter pipes with straight piping runs and multiple elbows to minimize design, material and assembly cost. The result is a system that requires a powerful pump to circulate fluid through the system. The same function can be served using a small efficient pump, larger piping with care taken to minimize bends and flow restrictions. While initially more expensive, the lifetime operating cost can be dramatically reduced.</p>  

<p>Careful design can yield systems that use 1/10th the energy of traditional systems. For more information see the Rocky Mountain Institute (RMI) initiative, Factor Ten Engineering: </p>  

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.rmi.org/Knowledge-Center/Library/2010-10_10xEPrinciples">http://www.rmi.org/Knowledge-Center/Library/2010-10_10xEPrinciples</a></h5> 

<h1>SMART GROWTH</h1>

<p>Existing buildings can be renovated to use less energy. When undertaken during major maintenance or renovation activities, the additional expense can be small. For consumers to make informed choices, it is important for building energy use to be known. Building labeling programs like the Energuide Rating System and the ASHRAE Building Energy Quotient provide building owners and and renters the ability to compare choices based on energy costs.</p>  

<h5>Energuide Rating System:  <a href="http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/residential/personal/16352">http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/residential/personal/16352</a></h5>

<h5>ASHRAE Website:  <a href="http://buildingenergyquotient.org/index.html">http://buildingenergyquotient.org/index.html</a></h5>  

<h3>CLEAR THE AIR</h3>

<p>Beyond the climate effects from greenhouse gasses, our fossil fuel use produces many compounds that damage our health. While some emissions are regulated (mercury, nitrous oxides, sulpher oxides), medical studies identify significant health damage results from the fine particles that escape power plant scrubbers. In addition coal plants emit lead, cadmium, hexachlorobenzene, dioxins and furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and arsenic. Living in close proximity to coal power plants increases risks for many diseases and loads the local environment with many toxic compounds. One estimate suggests that closing coal plants in Ontario 4 years early saved 1000 lives.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://cape.ca/permalinked/capenews-winter2011-english.pdf">http://cape.ca/permalinked/capenews-winter2011-english.pdf</a></h5>

<p>In Alberta, it is estimated that coal emissions contribute to 100 premature deaths each year:</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://asthma.ca/pdf/costly-diagnosis.pdf">http://asthma.ca/pdf/costly-diagnosis.pdf</a></h5>

<p>The American Lung Association writes in their report, Toxic Air, The Case for Cleaning Up Coal-fired PowerPlants:</p>

<p>"Everyone faces increased risk of harm from exposure to these hazardous air pollutants.However, many people face greater risk because of their age, health conditions, or exposure to the pollutants. They include:</p>

<p>
• Children and teenagers;<br>
• Older adults;<br>
• Pregnant women;<br>
• People with asthma and other lung diseases;<br>
• People with cardiovascular diseases;<br>
• Diabetics;<br>
• People with low incomes;<br>
• People who work or exercise outdoors; and<br>
• Others with existing health problems."
</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.lung.org/assets/documents/healthy-air/toxic-air-report.pdf">http://www.lung.org/assets/documents/healthy-air/toxic-air-report.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.lung.org/assets/documents/healthy-air/coal-fired-plant-hazards.pdf">http://www.lung.org/assets/documents/healthy-air/coal-fired-plant-hazards.pdf</a><br>
c: <a href="http://toxtown.nlm.nih.gov/text_version/locations.php?id=155">http://toxtown.nlm.nih.gov/text_version/locations.php?id=155</a>
</h5>

<h1>USE CLEANER</h1>

<p>Natural gas, a limited resource with considerable production concerns, burns with lower GHG emissions and with much lower toxic emissions.  Natural gas plants operate more efficiently and can respond quickly to changing demand, making them a good backup power source for renewable generation, in particular wind energy.</p>

<h1>PLAN WITH CARE</h1>

<p>Converting thermal plants to burn natural gas, as has been undertaken at Tuft's Cove, can be a cost effective way to retain some fossil backup as we learn to work with renewable energy.  Likewise, new, more efficient, combustion turbines equipped with heat recovery steam generators (combined cycle plants) are more efficient, compact and economical.  Careful study is needed to identify the  best options when switching fuels.  Even in the face of natural gas price uncertainty, conversion often makes sense, (http://bv.com/Home/news/thought-leadership/energy-issues/paper-of-the-year-a-case-study-on-coal-to-natural-gas-fuel-switch).</p>

<h1>NO SILVER BULLET</h1>

<p>It is important to consider natural gas as a transition fuel to be used sparingly to support delivery of increasing quantities of renewable energy.  In particular, recently developed fracking methods to produce natural gas present many risks:</p>

<p>
• increased greenhouse gas effects from escaped natural gas (methane)<br>
• local water contamination<br>
• increased low level earthquakes<br>
• non-renewable use of fresh water resources<br>
• toxic and radioactive chemical releases<br>
• increased ecosystem disruption (high density of roads, well sites and increased local road traffic)<br>
• regulatory risks - will established regulations be monitored effectively?
</p>

<h5>RELATED LINKS</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/magazine/oct11/fracking.asp">http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/magazine/oct11/fracking.asp</a><br>
b: <a href=">http://www2.epa.gov/hfstudy">http://www2.epa.gov/hfstudy</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.nrdc.org/energy/gasdrilling/">http://www.nrdc.org/energy/gasdrilling/</a><br>
d: <a href="http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/08/130819102714.htm">http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/08/130819102714.htm</a><br>
e: <a href="http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/12/121218203537.htm">http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/12/121218203537.htm</a>
</h5>

<p></p>
<h5>If you have a comment or want to recommend a link or find a broken link, please email us:<br> 
<a href="mailto:energy@ecologyaction.ca">energy@ecologyaction.ca</a></h5>

</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>

<script type="text/javascript">
jQuery(document).ready(function() { jQuery("a.sc-modal-link").fancybox({ "hideOnContentClick": true }); });
</script>
  • <p>Burning coal damages the environment<br>and our health. Less than 33% of the energy<br>in coal is converted into electricity.</p>

<p class="black-text">Changing to clean power will take time,<br>so we need to set a plan to RETIRE coal NOW.</p>

<a class="sc-button sc-modal-link alignleft light" style=" width: 150px; " href="#sc-modal-window-modal6">READ MORE</a>

<div style="display: none;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div id="sc-modal-window-modal6" class="sc-modal-content entry-content content-style" style="position:relative; width:600px; height:350px;">
<h3>READ MORE: Reduce and Retire</h3>

<h1>START SMART</h1>

<p>Burning fuel to drive engines or generate steam always results in significant energy being wasted. Not only does the exhaust from burning fuel release pollutants and greenhouse gasses, there are practical and physical limits to how much of the fuel can be converted into useful work or electricity. A visual depiction of this wasted energy is shown in the energy flow diagrams published annually by Lawrence Livermore Labs in the US (See below link). In Nova Scotia, where a similar mix of fuels is employed, the proportion of waste would be similar.</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="https://flowcharts.llnl.gov/">https://flowcharts.llnl.gov/</a></h5>

<p>Typical thermal electricity plants convert only 30 to 35 % of fuel energy to electricity. Biomass plants burning wet material, like fresh cut wood fibre are less efficient as some energy in the fuel is needed to first evaporate the water in the green wood. </p> 

<p>Slightly better, combined cycle thermal plants burn fuel, typically natural gas, but add a second stage that makes use of the heat in the exhaust. These plants convert almost half of the fuel energy to electricity. New units 4,5 and 6 added to the Tuft's Cove facility in Dartmouth are of this type.</p> 

<p>Most efficient, co-generation facilities capture the heat from thermal plant exhaust and use it to heat buildings or to supply hot water and steam for domestic or industrial use. In mid latitude climates like Nova Scotia, co-generation can convert approximately 80% of fuel energy to electricity and useful heat annually.</p>

<h1>BUILD BETTER</h1>

<p>Unaccounted in energy flow analyses is the energy required to heat or cool buildings because heating or cooling is considered a useful service and not waste. In 2008 56% of commercial and residential energy use was to heat buildings (Energy Use Data Handbook, 1990 to 2008, Natural resources Canada). What if the energy to provide the actual service - personal comfort - could be greatly reduced?</p>

<p>For most buildings in Canada, this is the case. Improved building standards, careful insulation and thorough air gap sealing can dramatically reduce the amount of heat needed to keep building interiors comfortable. In new construction, it is now possible to all but eliminate the need for a heating system.</p>  

<p>Some initiatives, like LEED and R2000 programs reduce building energy by around 1/3 compared to conventional practice. See (Do LEED-certified buildings save energy? Yes, but..., NRCC-51142). Likewise, model energy codes and industry standards (ASHRAE 90.1, for example) work towards incremental reductions in building heating. Continuous improvements in the Ashrae 90.1 standard has decreased energy use levels in buildings designed to the standard 48% since 1979.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://lgstdept.wharton.upenn.edu/igel/William_Braham_May8.pdf">http://lgstdept.wharton.upenn.edu/igel/William_Braham_May8.pdf</a></h5>

<p>Within these standards, there remains room for improvement. For example, Advanced Energy Design Guides, developed by the US DOE offer 50 to 30% reductions beyond current best energy practice.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://www.energycodes.gov/advanced-energy-design-guides">http://www.energycodes.gov/advanced-energy-design-guides</a></h5>

<p>Following stricter standards can yield greater savings and because building have a very long useful life, it is important to adopt stringent standards as soon as possible. Net-zero energy initiatives and the Passivhaus standard standout as leading examples:</p>  

<h5>
Net-zero Initiatives:  <a href="http://living-future.org/lbc">http://living-future.org/lbc</a><br> 

Passivhaus Website:  <a href="http://www.passivehouse.ca/">http://www.passivehouse.ca/</a>
</h5>

<p>The Canadian Green Building Council in addition to LEED oversight in Canada works to accelerate high-performing and healthy buildings in Canada. They continue to work to improve standards, develop best practiceadvocate for green building and educate it's members and the public about sustainable design and construction.</p>

<h5>Website:  <a href="www.cagbc.org">www.cagbc.org</a></h5> 

<p>Some of the most efficient homes in Canada are built here in Nova Scotia. To learn how, explore the Canadian Solar Home Design Manual developed by and available from Solar Nova Scotia.</p>

<h5>Solar Nova Scotia Website:  <a href="http://www.solarns.ca/">http://www.solarns.ca/</a></h5> 

<h1>WORK BETTER</h1>

<p>In industry, the potential for reduced energy use is also high. Equipment is often selected for low initial cost with little consideration for it's lifetime energy use. For example, a piping system laid out for low initial cost will use small diameter pipes with straight piping runs and multiple elbows to minimize design, material and assembly cost. The result is a system that requires a powerful pump to circulate fluid through the system. The same function can be served using a small efficient pump, larger piping with care taken to minimize bends and flow restrictions. While initially more expensive, the lifetime operating cost can be dramatically reduced.</p>  

<p>Careful design can yield systems that use 1/10th the energy of traditional systems. For more information see the Rocky Mountain Institute (RMI) initiative, Factor Ten Engineering: </p>  

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.rmi.org/Knowledge-Center/Library/2010-10_10xEPrinciples">http://www.rmi.org/Knowledge-Center/Library/2010-10_10xEPrinciples</a></h5> 

<h1>SMART GROWTH</h1>

<p>Existing buildings can be renovated to use less energy. When undertaken during major maintenance or renovation activities, the additional expense can be small. For consumers to make informed choices, it is important for building energy use to be known. Building labeling programs like the Energuide Rating System and the ASHRAE Building Energy Quotient provide building owners and and renters the ability to compare choices based on energy costs.</p>  

<h5>Energuide Rating System:  <a href="http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/residential/personal/16352">http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/residential/personal/16352</a></h5>

<h5>ASHRAE Website:  <a href="http://buildingenergyquotient.org/index.html">http://buildingenergyquotient.org/index.html</a></h5>  

<h3>CLEAR THE AIR</h3>

<p>Beyond the climate effects from greenhouse gasses, our fossil fuel use produces many compounds that damage our health. While some emissions are regulated (mercury, nitrous oxides, sulpher oxides), medical studies identify significant health damage results from the fine particles that escape power plant scrubbers. In addition coal plants emit lead, cadmium, hexachlorobenzene, dioxins and furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and arsenic. Living in close proximity to coal power plants increases risks for many diseases and loads the local environment with many toxic compounds. One estimate suggests that closing coal plants in Ontario 4 years early saved 1000 lives.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://cape.ca/permalinked/capenews-winter2011-english.pdf">http://cape.ca/permalinked/capenews-winter2011-english.pdf</a></h5>

<p>In Alberta, it is estimated that coal emissions contribute to 100 premature deaths each year:</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://asthma.ca/pdf/costly-diagnosis.pdf">http://asthma.ca/pdf/costly-diagnosis.pdf</a></h5>

<p>The American Lung Association writes in their report, Toxic Air, The Case for Cleaning Up Coal-fired PowerPlants:</p>

<p>"Everyone faces increased risk of harm from exposure to these hazardous air pollutants.However, many people face greater risk because of their age, health conditions, or exposure to the pollutants. They include:</p>

<p>
• Children and teenagers;<br>
• Older adults;<br>
• Pregnant women;<br>
• People with asthma and other lung diseases;<br>
• People with cardiovascular diseases;<br>
• Diabetics;<br>
• People with low incomes;<br>
• People who work or exercise outdoors; and<br>
• Others with existing health problems."
</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.lung.org/assets/documents/healthy-air/toxic-air-report.pdf">http://www.lung.org/assets/documents/healthy-air/toxic-air-report.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.lung.org/assets/documents/healthy-air/coal-fired-plant-hazards.pdf">http://www.lung.org/assets/documents/healthy-air/coal-fired-plant-hazards.pdf</a><br>
c: <a href="http://toxtown.nlm.nih.gov/text_version/locations.php?id=155">http://toxtown.nlm.nih.gov/text_version/locations.php?id=155</a>
</h5>

<h1>USE CLEANER</h1>

<p>Natural gas, a limited resource with considerable production concerns, burns with lower GHG emissions and with much lower toxic emissions.  Natural gas plants operate more efficiently and can respond quickly to changing demand, making them a good backup power source for renewable generation, in particular wind energy.</p>

<h1>PLAN WITH CARE</h1>

<p>Converting thermal plants to burn natural gas, as has been undertaken at Tuft's Cove, can be a cost effective way to retain some fossil backup as we learn to work with renewable energy.  Likewise, new, more efficient, combustion turbines equipped with heat recovery steam generators (combined cycle plants) are more efficient, compact and economical.  Careful study is needed to identify the  best options when switching fuels.  Even in the face of natural gas price uncertainty, conversion often makes sense, (http://bv.com/Home/news/thought-leadership/energy-issues/paper-of-the-year-a-case-study-on-coal-to-natural-gas-fuel-switch).</p>

<h1>NO SILVER BULLET</h1>

<p>It is important to consider natural gas as a transition fuel to be used sparingly to support delivery of increasing quantities of renewable energy.  In particular, recently developed fracking methods to produce natural gas present many risks:</p>

<p>
• increased greenhouse gas effects from escaped natural gas (methane)<br>
• local water contamination<br>
• increased low level earthquakes<br>
• non-renewable use of fresh water resources<br>
• toxic and radioactive chemical releases<br>
• increased ecosystem disruption (high density of roads, well sites and increased local road traffic)<br>
• regulatory risks - will established regulations be monitored effectively?
</p>

<h5>RELATED LINKS</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/magazine/oct11/fracking.asp">http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/magazine/oct11/fracking.asp</a><br>
b: <a href=">http://www2.epa.gov/hfstudy">http://www2.epa.gov/hfstudy</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.nrdc.org/energy/gasdrilling/">http://www.nrdc.org/energy/gasdrilling/</a><br>
d: <a href="http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/08/130819102714.htm">http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/08/130819102714.htm</a><br>
e: <a href="http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/12/121218203537.htm">http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/12/121218203537.htm</a>
</h5>

<p></p>
<h5>If you have a comment or want to recommend a link or find a broken link, please email us:<br> 
<a href="mailto:energy@ecologyaction.ca">energy@ecologyaction.ca</a></h5>

</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>

<script type="text/javascript">
jQuery(document).ready(function() { jQuery("a.sc-modal-link").fancybox({ "hideOnContentClick": true }); });
</script>
  • <p class="black-text" >While we learn to manage renewable<br>energy sources, we can USE natural gas<br>to generate CLEANER electricity.</p>

<p>Efficient new gas turbines or converted<br>coal plants can provide reliable backup<br>as we adapt to using renewable energy.</p>

<a class="sc-button sc-modal-link alignleft light" style=" width: 150px; " href="#sc-modal-window-modal7">READ MORE</a>

<div style="display: none;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div id="sc-modal-window-modal7" class="sc-modal-content entry-content content-style" style="position:relative; width:600px; height:350px;">
<h3>READ MORE: Reduce and Retire</h3>

<h1>START SMART</h1>

<p>Burning fuel to drive engines or generate steam always results in significant energy being wasted. Not only does the exhaust from burning fuel release pollutants and greenhouse gasses, there are practical and physical limits to how much of the fuel can be converted into useful work or electricity. A visual depiction of this wasted energy is shown in the energy flow diagrams published annually by Lawrence Livermore Labs in the US (See below link). In Nova Scotia, where a similar mix of fuels is employed, the proportion of waste would be similar.</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="https://flowcharts.llnl.gov/">https://flowcharts.llnl.gov/</a></h5>

<p>Typical thermal electricity plants convert only 30 to 35 % of fuel energy to electricity. Biomass plants burning wet material, like fresh cut wood fibre are less efficient as some energy in the fuel is needed to first evaporate the water in the green wood. </p> 

<p>Slightly better, combined cycle thermal plants burn fuel, typically natural gas, but add a second stage that makes use of the heat in the exhaust. These plants convert almost half of the fuel energy to electricity. New units 4,5 and 6 added to the Tuft's Cove facility in Dartmouth are of this type.</p> 

<p>Most efficient, co-generation facilities capture the heat from thermal plant exhaust and use it to heat buildings or to supply hot water and steam for domestic or industrial use. In mid latitude climates like Nova Scotia, co-generation can convert approximately 80% of fuel energy to electricity and useful heat annually.</p>

<h1>BUILD BETTER</h1>

<p>Unaccounted in energy flow analyses is the energy required to heat or cool buildings because heating or cooling is considered a useful service and not waste. In 2008 56% of commercial and residential energy use was to heat buildings (Energy Use Data Handbook, 1990 to 2008, Natural resources Canada). What if the energy to provide the actual service - personal comfort - could be greatly reduced?</p>

<p>For most buildings in Canada, this is the case. Improved building standards, careful insulation and thorough air gap sealing can dramatically reduce the amount of heat needed to keep building interiors comfortable. In new construction, it is now possible to all but eliminate the need for a heating system.</p>  

<p>Some initiatives, like LEED and R2000 programs reduce building energy by around 1/3 compared to conventional practice. See (Do LEED-certified buildings save energy? Yes, but..., NRCC-51142). Likewise, model energy codes and industry standards (ASHRAE 90.1, for example) work towards incremental reductions in building heating. Continuous improvements in the Ashrae 90.1 standard has decreased energy use levels in buildings designed to the standard 48% since 1979.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://lgstdept.wharton.upenn.edu/igel/William_Braham_May8.pdf">http://lgstdept.wharton.upenn.edu/igel/William_Braham_May8.pdf</a></h5>

<p>Within these standards, there remains room for improvement. For example, Advanced Energy Design Guides, developed by the US DOE offer 50 to 30% reductions beyond current best energy practice.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://www.energycodes.gov/advanced-energy-design-guides">http://www.energycodes.gov/advanced-energy-design-guides</a></h5>

<p>Following stricter standards can yield greater savings and because building have a very long useful life, it is important to adopt stringent standards as soon as possible. Net-zero energy initiatives and the Passivhaus standard standout as leading examples:</p>  

<h5>
Net-zero Initiatives:  <a href="http://living-future.org/lbc">http://living-future.org/lbc</a><br> 

Passivhaus Website:  <a href="http://www.passivehouse.ca/">http://www.passivehouse.ca/</a>
</h5>

<p>The Canadian Green Building Council in addition to LEED oversight in Canada works to accelerate high-performing and healthy buildings in Canada. They continue to work to improve standards, develop best practiceadvocate for green building and educate it's members and the public about sustainable design and construction.</p>

<h5>Website:  <a href="www.cagbc.org">www.cagbc.org</a></h5> 

<p>Some of the most efficient homes in Canada are built here in Nova Scotia. To learn how, explore the Canadian Solar Home Design Manual developed by and available from Solar Nova Scotia.</p>

<h5>Solar Nova Scotia Website:  <a href="http://www.solarns.ca/">http://www.solarns.ca/</a></h5> 

<h1>WORK BETTER</h1>

<p>In industry, the potential for reduced energy use is also high. Equipment is often selected for low initial cost with little consideration for it's lifetime energy use. For example, a piping system laid out for low initial cost will use small diameter pipes with straight piping runs and multiple elbows to minimize design, material and assembly cost. The result is a system that requires a powerful pump to circulate fluid through the system. The same function can be served using a small efficient pump, larger piping with care taken to minimize bends and flow restrictions. While initially more expensive, the lifetime operating cost can be dramatically reduced.</p>  

<p>Careful design can yield systems that use 1/10th the energy of traditional systems. For more information see the Rocky Mountain Institute (RMI) initiative, Factor Ten Engineering: </p>  

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.rmi.org/Knowledge-Center/Library/2010-10_10xEPrinciples">http://www.rmi.org/Knowledge-Center/Library/2010-10_10xEPrinciples</a></h5> 

<h1>SMART GROWTH</h1>

<p>Existing buildings can be renovated to use less energy. When undertaken during major maintenance or renovation activities, the additional expense can be small. For consumers to make informed choices, it is important for building energy use to be known. Building labeling programs like the Energuide Rating System and the ASHRAE Building Energy Quotient provide building owners and and renters the ability to compare choices based on energy costs.</p>  

<h5>Energuide Rating System:  <a href="http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/residential/personal/16352">http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/residential/personal/16352</a></h5>

<h5>ASHRAE Website:  <a href="http://buildingenergyquotient.org/index.html">http://buildingenergyquotient.org/index.html</a></h5>  

<h3>CLEAR THE AIR</h3>

<p>Beyond the climate effects from greenhouse gasses, our fossil fuel use produces many compounds that damage our health. While some emissions are regulated (mercury, nitrous oxides, sulpher oxides), medical studies identify significant health damage results from the fine particles that escape power plant scrubbers. In addition coal plants emit lead, cadmium, hexachlorobenzene, dioxins and furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and arsenic. Living in close proximity to coal power plants increases risks for many diseases and loads the local environment with many toxic compounds. One estimate suggests that closing coal plants in Ontario 4 years early saved 1000 lives.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://cape.ca/permalinked/capenews-winter2011-english.pdf">http://cape.ca/permalinked/capenews-winter2011-english.pdf</a></h5>

<p>In Alberta, it is estimated that coal emissions contribute to 100 premature deaths each year:</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://asthma.ca/pdf/costly-diagnosis.pdf">http://asthma.ca/pdf/costly-diagnosis.pdf</a></h5>

<p>The American Lung Association writes in their report, Toxic Air, The Case for Cleaning Up Coal-fired PowerPlants:</p>

<p>"Everyone faces increased risk of harm from exposure to these hazardous air pollutants.However, many people face greater risk because of their age, health conditions, or exposure to the pollutants. They include:</p>

<p>
• Children and teenagers;<br>
• Older adults;<br>
• Pregnant women;<br>
• People with asthma and other lung diseases;<br>
• People with cardiovascular diseases;<br>
• Diabetics;<br>
• People with low incomes;<br>
• People who work or exercise outdoors; and<br>
• Others with existing health problems."
</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.lung.org/assets/documents/healthy-air/toxic-air-report.pdf">http://www.lung.org/assets/documents/healthy-air/toxic-air-report.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.lung.org/assets/documents/healthy-air/coal-fired-plant-hazards.pdf">http://www.lung.org/assets/documents/healthy-air/coal-fired-plant-hazards.pdf</a><br>
c: <a href="http://toxtown.nlm.nih.gov/text_version/locations.php?id=155">http://toxtown.nlm.nih.gov/text_version/locations.php?id=155</a>
</h5>

<h1>USE CLEANER</h1>

<p>Natural gas, a limited resource with considerable production concerns, burns with lower GHG emissions and with much lower toxic emissions.  Natural gas plants operate more efficiently and can respond quickly to changing demand, making them a good backup power source for renewable generation, in particular wind energy.</p>

<h1>PLAN WITH CARE</h1>

<p>Converting thermal plants to burn natural gas, as has been undertaken at Tuft's Cove, can be a cost effective way to retain some fossil backup as we learn to work with renewable energy.  Likewise, new, more efficient, combustion turbines equipped with heat recovery steam generators (combined cycle plants) are more efficient, compact and economical.  Careful study is needed to identify the  best options when switching fuels.  Even in the face of natural gas price uncertainty, conversion often makes sense, (http://bv.com/Home/news/thought-leadership/energy-issues/paper-of-the-year-a-case-study-on-coal-to-natural-gas-fuel-switch).</p>

<h1>NO SILVER BULLET</h1>

<p>It is important to consider natural gas as a transition fuel to be used sparingly to support delivery of increasing quantities of renewable energy.  In particular, recently developed fracking methods to produce natural gas present many risks:</p>

<p>
• increased greenhouse gas effects from escaped natural gas (methane)<br>
• local water contamination<br>
• increased low level earthquakes<br>
• non-renewable use of fresh water resources<br>
• toxic and radioactive chemical releases<br>
• increased ecosystem disruption (high density of roads, well sites and increased local road traffic)<br>
• regulatory risks - will established regulations be monitored effectively?
</p>

<h5>RELATED LINKS</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/magazine/oct11/fracking.asp">http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/magazine/oct11/fracking.asp</a><br>
b: <a href=">http://www2.epa.gov/hfstudy">http://www2.epa.gov/hfstudy</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.nrdc.org/energy/gasdrilling/">http://www.nrdc.org/energy/gasdrilling/</a><br>
d: <a href="http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/08/130819102714.htm">http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/08/130819102714.htm</a><br>
e: <a href="http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/12/121218203537.htm">http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/12/121218203537.htm</a>
</h5>

<p></p>
<h5>If you have a comment or want to recommend a link or find a broken link, please email us:<br> 
<a href="mailto:energy@ecologyaction.ca">energy@ecologyaction.ca</a></h5>

</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>

<script type="text/javascript">
jQuery(document).ready(function() { jQuery("a.sc-modal-link").fancybox({ "hideOnContentClick": true }); });
</script>
  • <p class="black-text">We can use natural gas<br>as we take the TIME to PLAN.</p>

<p>When winter energy demand is high,<br>natural gas prices can rise quickly.</p>

<p class="black-text">Natural gas remains a fossil fuel<br>so it must be used with CARE.</p>

<a class="sc-button sc-modal-link alignleft light" style=" width: 150px; " href="#sc-modal-window-modal8">READ MORE</a>

<div style="display: none;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div id="sc-modal-window-modal8" class="sc-modal-content entry-content content-style" style="position:relative; width:600px; height:350px;">
<h3>READ MORE: Reduce and Retire</h3>

<h1>START SMART</h1>

<p>Burning fuel to drive engines or generate steam always results in significant energy being wasted. Not only does the exhaust from burning fuel release pollutants and greenhouse gasses, there are practical and physical limits to how much of the fuel can be converted into useful work or electricity. A visual depiction of this wasted energy is shown in the energy flow diagrams published annually by Lawrence Livermore Labs in the US (See below link). In Nova Scotia, where a similar mix of fuels is employed, the proportion of waste would be similar.</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="https://flowcharts.llnl.gov/">https://flowcharts.llnl.gov/</a></h5>

<p>Typical thermal electricity plants convert only 30 to 35 % of fuel energy to electricity. Biomass plants burning wet material, like fresh cut wood fibre are less efficient as some energy in the fuel is needed to first evaporate the water in the green wood. </p> 

<p>Slightly better, combined cycle thermal plants burn fuel, typically natural gas, but add a second stage that makes use of the heat in the exhaust. These plants convert almost half of the fuel energy to electricity. New units 4,5 and 6 added to the Tuft's Cove facility in Dartmouth are of this type.</p> 

<p>Most efficient, co-generation facilities capture the heat from thermal plant exhaust and use it to heat buildings or to supply hot water and steam for domestic or industrial use. In mid latitude climates like Nova Scotia, co-generation can convert approximately 80% of fuel energy to electricity and useful heat annually.</p>

<h1>BUILD BETTER</h1>

<p>Unaccounted in energy flow analyses is the energy required to heat or cool buildings because heating or cooling is considered a useful service and not waste. In 2008 56% of commercial and residential energy use was to heat buildings (Energy Use Data Handbook, 1990 to 2008, Natural resources Canada). What if the energy to provide the actual service - personal comfort - could be greatly reduced?</p>

<p>For most buildings in Canada, this is the case. Improved building standards, careful insulation and thorough air gap sealing can dramatically reduce the amount of heat needed to keep building interiors comfortable. In new construction, it is now possible to all but eliminate the need for a heating system.</p>  

<p>Some initiatives, like LEED and R2000 programs reduce building energy by around 1/3 compared to conventional practice. See (Do LEED-certified buildings save energy? Yes, but..., NRCC-51142). Likewise, model energy codes and industry standards (ASHRAE 90.1, for example) work towards incremental reductions in building heating. Continuous improvements in the Ashrae 90.1 standard has decreased energy use levels in buildings designed to the standard 48% since 1979.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://lgstdept.wharton.upenn.edu/igel/William_Braham_May8.pdf">http://lgstdept.wharton.upenn.edu/igel/William_Braham_May8.pdf</a></h5>

<p>Within these standards, there remains room for improvement. For example, Advanced Energy Design Guides, developed by the US DOE offer 50 to 30% reductions beyond current best energy practice.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://www.energycodes.gov/advanced-energy-design-guides">http://www.energycodes.gov/advanced-energy-design-guides</a></h5>

<p>Following stricter standards can yield greater savings and because building have a very long useful life, it is important to adopt stringent standards as soon as possible. Net-zero energy initiatives and the Passivhaus standard standout as leading examples:</p>  

<h5>
Net-zero Initiatives:  <a href="http://living-future.org/lbc">http://living-future.org/lbc</a><br> 

Passivhaus Website:  <a href="http://www.passivehouse.ca/">http://www.passivehouse.ca/</a>
</h5>

<p>The Canadian Green Building Council in addition to LEED oversight in Canada works to accelerate high-performing and healthy buildings in Canada. They continue to work to improve standards, develop best practiceadvocate for green building and educate it's members and the public about sustainable design and construction.</p>

<h5>Website:  <a href="www.cagbc.org">www.cagbc.org</a></h5> 

<p>Some of the most efficient homes in Canada are built here in Nova Scotia. To learn how, explore the Canadian Solar Home Design Manual developed by and available from Solar Nova Scotia.</p>

<h5>Solar Nova Scotia Website:  <a href="http://www.solarns.ca/">http://www.solarns.ca/</a></h5> 

<h1>WORK BETTER</h1>

<p>In industry, the potential for reduced energy use is also high. Equipment is often selected for low initial cost with little consideration for it's lifetime energy use. For example, a piping system laid out for low initial cost will use small diameter pipes with straight piping runs and multiple elbows to minimize design, material and assembly cost. The result is a system that requires a powerful pump to circulate fluid through the system. The same function can be served using a small efficient pump, larger piping with care taken to minimize bends and flow restrictions. While initially more expensive, the lifetime operating cost can be dramatically reduced.</p>  

<p>Careful design can yield systems that use 1/10th the energy of traditional systems. For more information see the Rocky Mountain Institute (RMI) initiative, Factor Ten Engineering: </p>  

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.rmi.org/Knowledge-Center/Library/2010-10_10xEPrinciples">http://www.rmi.org/Knowledge-Center/Library/2010-10_10xEPrinciples</a></h5> 

<h1>SMART GROWTH</h1>

<p>Existing buildings can be renovated to use less energy. When undertaken during major maintenance or renovation activities, the additional expense can be small. For consumers to make informed choices, it is important for building energy use to be known. Building labeling programs like the Energuide Rating System and the ASHRAE Building Energy Quotient provide building owners and and renters the ability to compare choices based on energy costs.</p>  

<h5>Energuide Rating System:  <a href="http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/residential/personal/16352">http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/residential/personal/16352</a></h5>

<h5>ASHRAE Website:  <a href="http://buildingenergyquotient.org/index.html">http://buildingenergyquotient.org/index.html</a></h5>  

<h3>CLEAR THE AIR</h3>

<p>Beyond the climate effects from greenhouse gasses, our fossil fuel use produces many compounds that damage our health. While some emissions are regulated (mercury, nitrous oxides, sulpher oxides), medical studies identify significant health damage results from the fine particles that escape power plant scrubbers. In addition coal plants emit lead, cadmium, hexachlorobenzene, dioxins and furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and arsenic. Living in close proximity to coal power plants increases risks for many diseases and loads the local environment with many toxic compounds. One estimate suggests that closing coal plants in Ontario 4 years early saved 1000 lives.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://cape.ca/permalinked/capenews-winter2011-english.pdf">http://cape.ca/permalinked/capenews-winter2011-english.pdf</a></h5>

<p>In Alberta, it is estimated that coal emissions contribute to 100 premature deaths each year:</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://asthma.ca/pdf/costly-diagnosis.pdf">http://asthma.ca/pdf/costly-diagnosis.pdf</a></h5>

<p>The American Lung Association writes in their report, Toxic Air, The Case for Cleaning Up Coal-fired PowerPlants:</p>

<p>"Everyone faces increased risk of harm from exposure to these hazardous air pollutants.However, many people face greater risk because of their age, health conditions, or exposure to the pollutants. They include:</p>

<p>
• Children and teenagers;<br>
• Older adults;<br>
• Pregnant women;<br>
• People with asthma and other lung diseases;<br>
• People with cardiovascular diseases;<br>
• Diabetics;<br>
• People with low incomes;<br>
• People who work or exercise outdoors; and<br>
• Others with existing health problems."
</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.lung.org/assets/documents/healthy-air/toxic-air-report.pdf">http://www.lung.org/assets/documents/healthy-air/toxic-air-report.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.lung.org/assets/documents/healthy-air/coal-fired-plant-hazards.pdf">http://www.lung.org/assets/documents/healthy-air/coal-fired-plant-hazards.pdf</a><br>
c: <a href="http://toxtown.nlm.nih.gov/text_version/locations.php?id=155">http://toxtown.nlm.nih.gov/text_version/locations.php?id=155</a>
</h5>

<h1>USE CLEANER</h1>

<p>Natural gas, a limited resource with considerable production concerns, burns with lower GHG emissions and with much lower toxic emissions.  Natural gas plants operate more efficiently and can respond quickly to changing demand, making them a good backup power source for renewable generation, in particular wind energy.</p>

<h1>PLAN WITH CARE</h1>

<p>Converting thermal plants to burn natural gas, as has been undertaken at Tuft's Cove, can be a cost effective way to retain some fossil backup as we learn to work with renewable energy.  Likewise, new, more efficient, combustion turbines equipped with heat recovery steam generators (combined cycle plants) are more efficient, compact and economical.  Careful study is needed to identify the  best options when switching fuels.  Even in the face of natural gas price uncertainty, conversion often makes sense, (http://bv.com/Home/news/thought-leadership/energy-issues/paper-of-the-year-a-case-study-on-coal-to-natural-gas-fuel-switch).</p>

<h1>NO SILVER BULLET</h1>

<p>It is important to consider natural gas as a transition fuel to be used sparingly to support delivery of increasing quantities of renewable energy.  In particular, recently developed fracking methods to produce natural gas present many risks:</p>

<p>
• increased greenhouse gas effects from escaped natural gas (methane)<br>
• local water contamination<br>
• increased low level earthquakes<br>
• non-renewable use of fresh water resources<br>
• toxic and radioactive chemical releases<br>
• increased ecosystem disruption (high density of roads, well sites and increased local road traffic)<br>
• regulatory risks - will established regulations be monitored effectively?
</p>

<h5>RELATED LINKS</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/magazine/oct11/fracking.asp">http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/magazine/oct11/fracking.asp</a><br>
b: <a href=">http://www2.epa.gov/hfstudy">http://www2.epa.gov/hfstudy</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.nrdc.org/energy/gasdrilling/">http://www.nrdc.org/energy/gasdrilling/</a><br>
d: <a href="http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/08/130819102714.htm">http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/08/130819102714.htm</a><br>
e: <a href="http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/12/121218203537.htm">http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/12/121218203537.htm</a>
</h5>

<p></p>
<h5>If you have a comment or want to recommend a link or find a broken link, please email us:<br> 
<a href="mailto:energy@ecologyaction.ca">energy@ecologyaction.ca</a></h5>

</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>

<script type="text/javascript">
jQuery(document).ready(function() { jQuery("a.sc-modal-link").fancybox({ "hideOnContentClick": true }); });
</script>
  • <p class="black-text">There is NO SILVER BULLET<br>for our energy needs.</p>

<p>FRACKING for natural gas for instance, threatens water supplies and local wildlife.</p>

<p class="black-text">No SINGLE energy source is perfect.</p>

<a class="sc-button sc-modal-link alignleft light" style=" width: 150px; " href="#sc-modal-window-modal9">READ MORE</a>

<div style="display: none;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div id="sc-modal-window-modal9" class="sc-modal-content entry-content content-style" style="position:relative; width:600px; height:350px;">
<h3>READ MORE: Reduce and Retire</h3>

<h1>START SMART</h1>

<p>Burning fuel to drive engines or generate steam always results in significant energy being wasted. Not only does the exhaust from burning fuel release pollutants and greenhouse gasses, there are practical and physical limits to how much of the fuel can be converted into useful work or electricity. A visual depiction of this wasted energy is shown in the energy flow diagrams published annually by Lawrence Livermore Labs in the US (See below link). In Nova Scotia, where a similar mix of fuels is employed, the proportion of waste would be similar.</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="https://flowcharts.llnl.gov/">https://flowcharts.llnl.gov/</a></h5>

<p>Typical thermal electricity plants convert only 30 to 35 % of fuel energy to electricity. Biomass plants burning wet material, like fresh cut wood fibre are less efficient as some energy in the fuel is needed to first evaporate the water in the green wood. </p> 

<p>Slightly better, combined cycle thermal plants burn fuel, typically natural gas, but add a second stage that makes use of the heat in the exhaust. These plants convert almost half of the fuel energy to electricity. New units 4,5 and 6 added to the Tuft's Cove facility in Dartmouth are of this type.</p> 

<p>Most efficient, co-generation facilities capture the heat from thermal plant exhaust and use it to heat buildings or to supply hot water and steam for domestic or industrial use. In mid latitude climates like Nova Scotia, co-generation can convert approximately 80% of fuel energy to electricity and useful heat annually.</p>

<h1>BUILD BETTER</h1>

<p>Unaccounted in energy flow analyses is the energy required to heat or cool buildings because heating or cooling is considered a useful service and not waste. In 2008 56% of commercial and residential energy use was to heat buildings (Energy Use Data Handbook, 1990 to 2008, Natural resources Canada). What if the energy to provide the actual service - personal comfort - could be greatly reduced?</p>

<p>For most buildings in Canada, this is the case. Improved building standards, careful insulation and thorough air gap sealing can dramatically reduce the amount of heat needed to keep building interiors comfortable. In new construction, it is now possible to all but eliminate the need for a heating system.</p>  

<p>Some initiatives, like LEED and R2000 programs reduce building energy by around 1/3 compared to conventional practice. See (Do LEED-certified buildings save energy? Yes, but..., NRCC-51142). Likewise, model energy codes and industry standards (ASHRAE 90.1, for example) work towards incremental reductions in building heating. Continuous improvements in the Ashrae 90.1 standard has decreased energy use levels in buildings designed to the standard 48% since 1979.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://lgstdept.wharton.upenn.edu/igel/William_Braham_May8.pdf">http://lgstdept.wharton.upenn.edu/igel/William_Braham_May8.pdf</a></h5>

<p>Within these standards, there remains room for improvement. For example, Advanced Energy Design Guides, developed by the US DOE offer 50 to 30% reductions beyond current best energy practice.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://www.energycodes.gov/advanced-energy-design-guides">http://www.energycodes.gov/advanced-energy-design-guides</a></h5>

<p>Following stricter standards can yield greater savings and because building have a very long useful life, it is important to adopt stringent standards as soon as possible. Net-zero energy initiatives and the Passivhaus standard standout as leading examples:</p>  

<h5>
Net-zero Initiatives:  <a href="http://living-future.org/lbc">http://living-future.org/lbc</a><br> 

Passivhaus Website:  <a href="http://www.passivehouse.ca/">http://www.passivehouse.ca/</a>
</h5>

<p>The Canadian Green Building Council in addition to LEED oversight in Canada works to accelerate high-performing and healthy buildings in Canada. They continue to work to improve standards, develop best practiceadvocate for green building and educate it's members and the public about sustainable design and construction.</p>

<h5>Website:  <a href="www.cagbc.org">www.cagbc.org</a></h5> 

<p>Some of the most efficient homes in Canada are built here in Nova Scotia. To learn how, explore the Canadian Solar Home Design Manual developed by and available from Solar Nova Scotia.</p>

<h5>Solar Nova Scotia Website:  <a href="http://www.solarns.ca/">http://www.solarns.ca/</a></h5> 

<h1>WORK BETTER</h1>

<p>In industry, the potential for reduced energy use is also high. Equipment is often selected for low initial cost with little consideration for it's lifetime energy use. For example, a piping system laid out for low initial cost will use small diameter pipes with straight piping runs and multiple elbows to minimize design, material and assembly cost. The result is a system that requires a powerful pump to circulate fluid through the system. The same function can be served using a small efficient pump, larger piping with care taken to minimize bends and flow restrictions. While initially more expensive, the lifetime operating cost can be dramatically reduced.</p>  

<p>Careful design can yield systems that use 1/10th the energy of traditional systems. For more information see the Rocky Mountain Institute (RMI) initiative, Factor Ten Engineering: </p>  

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.rmi.org/Knowledge-Center/Library/2010-10_10xEPrinciples">http://www.rmi.org/Knowledge-Center/Library/2010-10_10xEPrinciples</a></h5> 

<h1>SMART GROWTH</h1>

<p>Existing buildings can be renovated to use less energy. When undertaken during major maintenance or renovation activities, the additional expense can be small. For consumers to make informed choices, it is important for building energy use to be known. Building labeling programs like the Energuide Rating System and the ASHRAE Building Energy Quotient provide building owners and and renters the ability to compare choices based on energy costs.</p>  

<h5>Energuide Rating System:  <a href="http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/residential/personal/16352">http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/residential/personal/16352</a></h5>

<h5>ASHRAE Website:  <a href="http://buildingenergyquotient.org/index.html">http://buildingenergyquotient.org/index.html</a></h5>  

<h3>CLEAR THE AIR</h3>

<p>Beyond the climate effects from greenhouse gasses, our fossil fuel use produces many compounds that damage our health. While some emissions are regulated (mercury, nitrous oxides, sulpher oxides), medical studies identify significant health damage results from the fine particles that escape power plant scrubbers. In addition coal plants emit lead, cadmium, hexachlorobenzene, dioxins and furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and arsenic. Living in close proximity to coal power plants increases risks for many diseases and loads the local environment with many toxic compounds. One estimate suggests that closing coal plants in Ontario 4 years early saved 1000 lives.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://cape.ca/permalinked/capenews-winter2011-english.pdf">http://cape.ca/permalinked/capenews-winter2011-english.pdf</a></h5>

<p>In Alberta, it is estimated that coal emissions contribute to 100 premature deaths each year:</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://asthma.ca/pdf/costly-diagnosis.pdf">http://asthma.ca/pdf/costly-diagnosis.pdf</a></h5>

<p>The American Lung Association writes in their report, Toxic Air, The Case for Cleaning Up Coal-fired PowerPlants:</p>

<p>"Everyone faces increased risk of harm from exposure to these hazardous air pollutants.However, many people face greater risk because of their age, health conditions, or exposure to the pollutants. They include:</p>

<p>
• Children and teenagers;<br>
• Older adults;<br>
• Pregnant women;<br>
• People with asthma and other lung diseases;<br>
• People with cardiovascular diseases;<br>
• Diabetics;<br>
• People with low incomes;<br>
• People who work or exercise outdoors; and<br>
• Others with existing health problems."
</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.lung.org/assets/documents/healthy-air/toxic-air-report.pdf">http://www.lung.org/assets/documents/healthy-air/toxic-air-report.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.lung.org/assets/documents/healthy-air/coal-fired-plant-hazards.pdf">http://www.lung.org/assets/documents/healthy-air/coal-fired-plant-hazards.pdf</a><br>
c: <a href="http://toxtown.nlm.nih.gov/text_version/locations.php?id=155">http://toxtown.nlm.nih.gov/text_version/locations.php?id=155</a>
</h5>

<h1>USE CLEANER</h1>

<p>Natural gas, a limited resource with considerable production concerns, burns with lower GHG emissions and with much lower toxic emissions.  Natural gas plants operate more efficiently and can respond quickly to changing demand, making them a good backup power source for renewable generation, in particular wind energy.</p>

<h1>PLAN WITH CARE</h1>

<p>Converting thermal plants to burn natural gas, as has been undertaken at Tuft's Cove, can be a cost effective way to retain some fossil backup as we learn to work with renewable energy.  Likewise, new, more efficient, combustion turbines equipped with heat recovery steam generators (combined cycle plants) are more efficient, compact and economical.  Careful study is needed to identify the  best options when switching fuels.  Even in the face of natural gas price uncertainty, conversion often makes sense, (http://bv.com/Home/news/thought-leadership/energy-issues/paper-of-the-year-a-case-study-on-coal-to-natural-gas-fuel-switch).</p>

<h1>NO SILVER BULLET</h1>

<p>It is important to consider natural gas as a transition fuel to be used sparingly to support delivery of increasing quantities of renewable energy.  In particular, recently developed fracking methods to produce natural gas present many risks:</p>

<p>
• increased greenhouse gas effects from escaped natural gas (methane)<br>
• local water contamination<br>
• increased low level earthquakes<br>
• non-renewable use of fresh water resources<br>
• toxic and radioactive chemical releases<br>
• increased ecosystem disruption (high density of roads, well sites and increased local road traffic)<br>
• regulatory risks - will established regulations be monitored effectively?
</p>

<h5>RELATED LINKS</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/magazine/oct11/fracking.asp">http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/magazine/oct11/fracking.asp</a><br>
b: <a href=">http://www2.epa.gov/hfstudy">http://www2.epa.gov/hfstudy</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.nrdc.org/energy/gasdrilling/">http://www.nrdc.org/energy/gasdrilling/</a><br>
d: <a href="http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/08/130819102714.htm">http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/08/130819102714.htm</a><br>
e: <a href="http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/12/121218203537.htm">http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/12/121218203537.htm</a>
</h5>

<p></p>
<h5>If you have a comment or want to recommend a link or find a broken link, please email us:<br> 
<a href="mailto:energy@ecologyaction.ca">energy@ecologyaction.ca</a></h5>

</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>

<script type="text/javascript">
jQuery(document).ready(function() { jQuery("a.sc-modal-link").fancybox({ "hideOnContentClick": true }); });
</script>
 

Reduce and Retire

Switch The Mix

Modernize Our Grid

Make It Happen

 
 
  • <p class="blue-text">A DIVERSE mix of energy sources brings energy SECURITY. Renewable energy from wind, water and sun is abundant in Nova Scotia. We are already learning to manage<br>the challenges a MIX of renewable<br>energy sources presents.</p>

<p class="black-text">By 2030 we can make the SWITCH.</p>

<a class="sc-button sc-modal-link alignleft light" style=" width: 150px; " href="#sc-modal-window-modal10">READ MORE</a>

<div style="display: none;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div id="sc-modal-window-modal10" class="sc-modal-content entry-content content-style" style="position:relative; width:600px; height:350px;">
<h3>READ MORE: Switch The Mix</h3>

<h1>WHY 2030?</h1>

<p>The scientific consensus on climate change and global warming is that we need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to below 80% of 1990 emissions by 2050.  Because replacing transportation fuels with alternates requires clean electricity and because it is easier to change stationary energy use it's important to develop clean electricity supplies well before 2050.</p>

<p>Is there enough renewable energy? 
<p>Renewable energy resources from wind, water and sun greatly exceeds our current, wasteful, energy use. Barriers to renewable energy are primarily social and political, not technological or economic. The energy cost in a renewable energy powered world should be similar to energy costs today.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://cwec.ucdavis.edu/forum2010/proceedings2/Jacobson_CWEC2010.pdf">http://cwec.ucdavis.edu/forum2010/proceedings2/Jacobson_CWEC2010.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/Articles/I/NewYorkWWSEnPolicy.pdf">http://www.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/Articles/I/NewYorkWWSEnPolicy.pdf</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/Articles/I/susenergy2030.html">http://www.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/Articles/I/susenergy2030.html</a>
</h5>

<p>Gradual transition from out current fossil system to renewable energy can be accomplished by ramping down fossil generation as renewable energy sources are incorporated into our electricity grid.</p> 

<p>The concept of wedges (Stabilization Wedges: Solving the Climate Problem for the Next 50 Years with Current Technologies, S. Pacala1, R. Socolow2)- starting small and increasing output or effect as the technology is well described by the Princeton Environmental Instituteís Carbon Mitigation Initiative and the approach will work well in Nova Scotia (and Canada).</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.sciencemag.org/content/305/5686/968.full?ijkey=Y58LIjdWjMPsw&keytype=ref&siteid=sci">http://www.sciencemag.org/content/305/5686/968.full?ijkey=Y58LIjdWjMPsw&keytype=ref&siteid=sci</a><br>
b: <a href="http://cmi.princeton.edu/wedges/">http://cmi.princeton.edu/wedges/</a>
</h5>

<p>Between now and 2030, the Nova Scotia economy will continue to grow. Traditionally, economic growth implies increased energy use, but in the last several decades, economic growth has been achieved with relatively no increase in overall energy use.  Energy use per unit of economic output has declined from  0.4 to .25 since 1971. Moreover, Canada ranks second last in energy efficiency (behind Brazil and ahead of Russia) in a 2012 study by the American Council for an energy efficient economy (ACEEE), so there is lots of room to improve.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.conferenceboard.ca/hcp/details/environment/energy-intensity.aspx">http://www.conferenceboard.ca/hcp/details/environment/energy-intensity.aspx</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.aceee.org/portal/national-policy/international-scorecard">http://www.aceee.org/portal/national-policy/international-scorecard</a>
</h5>


<p>For these reasons, the first and most important "Energy Wedge" is to use efficiency to reduce Nova Scotias annual electricity use from over 10,000 Gigawatt-hours to 8000 Gigawatt-hours while supporting ongoing economic growth.</p>  


<h1>SOLAR</h1>

<p>Solar photovoltaic panels prices continue to decline. Because they can be located on existing buildings to make double use of land already claimed for human use, they represent a win win for society and the environment: a cost becomes a source of income.</p>

<p>The 3400 acre Burnside Industrial Park has enough area to collect over 400 Gigwatt-hours of electricity each year. That's 5% of projected 2030 annual use. Even allowing for restricted use on rooftops alone, the park could provide 2-3% of Nova Scotia's annual electricity use. The advantage of coupling low rise industrial buildings and solar power is that daily electricity use, especially in the summer, peaks mid day when solar energy is the strongest and wind energy is often low. Local distribution level PV generation can counter peak demands from refrigeration and air conditioning that strain our summer time grids. While winter output is lower, well insulated buildings and greater wintertime wind output can help balance these effects.</p> 

<p>With an average daily solar intensity of 3.3 to 4.2 kwHr/m2, Nova Scotians can generate significant energy from the sun. A rooftop array on a 1500 square foot home would provide over 30 kilowatt hours per day, well above the use for many homes. Your local Solar Nova Scotia member can help you decide if solar energy is for you.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://pv.nrcan.gc.ca/index.php?lang=e">http://pv.nrcan.gc.ca/index.php?lang=e</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.solarns.ca/">http://www.solarns.ca/</a>
</h5>


<h5>Coming soon - solar PV report for Nova Scotia</h5>


<h1>WIND</h1>

<p>Wind energy is the most abundant accessible large scale renewable resource in Nova Scotia. The wind resource itself is large enough to power the province many times over but economic use of the resource must be undertaken carefully.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/EM/Wind/NS-Wind-Integration-Study-FINAL.pdf">http://www.gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/EM/Wind/NS-Wind-Integration-Study-FINAL.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.emeranl.com/site/media/emeranl/App%206.02%20NSPI%20Wind%20Integration%20Challenges%20Whi
tepaper.pdf">http://www.emeranl.com/site/media/emeranl/App%206.02%20NSPI%20Wind%20Integration%20Challenges%20Whi
tepaper.pdf</a>
</h5>

<p>Wind farm development must be undertaken with care because while our ecosystem and society benefit from renewable energy, each wind farm poses a disruption to the community where it is located. Here, risks, however small, fall upon the local ecosystem and residents. Policy for and development of wind farms must be acceptable to the local community.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/consult/_2013/wind_turbine-eoliennes/research_recherche-eng.php">http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/consult/_2013/wind_turbine-eoliennes/research_recherche-eng.php</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.ieawind.org/index_page_postings/RP/RP%2014%20Social_Acceptance_FINAL.pdf">http://www.ieawind.org/index_page_postings/RP/RP%2014%20Social_Acceptance_FINAL.pdf</a>
</h5>

<p>Stress, perception and expectations are intertwined psychological processes that have long helped individuals react to potentially threatening circumstances.  Unfortunately, these same processes can establish psychological expectations that alone lead to health complaints. For these reasons, all stakeholders must proceed openly and fairly and be very careful to listen and understand one and another.</p>   

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/2013-07740-001/">http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/2013-07740-001/</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.canwea.ca/">http://www.canwea.ca/</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/consult/_2013/wind_turbine-eoliennes/research_recherche-eng.php">http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/consult/_2013/wind_turbine-eoliennes/research_recherche-eng.php</a>
</h5>

<h1>HYDRO</h1>

<p>Hydroelectric generation is one of the oldest methods of generating renewable energy.  At a large scale it is disruptive to it's host watershed and at a small scale, it's potential is limited.  Within Nova Scotia there is very little potential for new hydro power generation and existing infrastructure continues to impact watershed ecosystems.</p> 

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.electricity.ca/media/Electricity101/Electricity101.pdf">http://www.electricity.ca/media/Electricity101/Electricity101.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://nsrenewables.ca/hydroelectricity-nova-scotia">http://nsrenewables.ca/hydroelectricity-nova-scotia</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.dal.ca/content/dam/dalhousie/pdf/science/environmental-science-program/Honours%20Theses/
Gillian_Fielding.pdf">http://www.dal.ca/content/dam/dalhousie/pdf/science/environmental-science-program/Honours%20Theses/
Gillian_Fielding.pdf</a>
</h5>

<p>Likewise, climate change threatens planet wide disruption of every watershed. It will be an ongoing challenge to fairly balance local disruption against global benefit.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</p>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.davidsuzuki.org/issues/climate-change/science/impacts/species-and-ecosystems/">http://www.davidsuzuki.org/issues/climate-change/science/impacts/species-and-ecosystems/</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/impacts-adaptation/ecosystems.html">http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/impacts-adaptation/ecosystems.html</a><br>
c: <a href="http://collectionscanada.gc.ca/webarchives2/20130322143115/http:/nrtee-trnee.ca/climate/climate-pro
sperity/the-economic-impacts-of-climate-change-for-canada/paying-the-price">http://collectionscanada.gc.ca/webarchives2/20130322143115/http:/nrtee-trnee.ca/climate/climate-pro
sperity/the-economic-impacts-of-climate-change-for-canada/paying-the-price</a>
</h5>

<p>Hydropower provides low cost electricity to several provinces within in Canada. It is the main reason that electricity rates remain low within British Columbia, Manitoba and Quebec where in addition to inexpensive electricity, these provinces derive significant income from sales to the United States. Improved east-west electricity transmission is required to extend these benefits to neighboring provinces. East-west generation and transmission development further enhances daily load balancing by extending the reach of existing hydro generation, variable wind generation and load following schedules.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://www.cdhowe.org/pdf/commentary_306.pdf">http://www.cdhowe.org/pdf/commentary_306.pdf</a></h5>

<p>Of the over 400 megawatts of capacity with Nova Scotia, much capacity is seasonally restricted or constrained to operate at full capacity for short periods of time.  As such, hydro electricity's principal benefit is that it can be used to help balance hourly demand against variable renewable generation.</p>  

<h1>TIDAL</h1>

<p>Tidal development continues within Nova Scotia. The strength of the tidal resource is both a challenge and an opportunity.  As the potential threats and advantages of this technology are explored, we will be able to judge it's ability to help Nova Scotia become Fossil Free.</p>

<h1>BIOMASS</h1>

<p>The most sustainable source of biomass is from agricultural and industrial waste. Typically, this material forms a waste stream within a farm or process that takes both time and money to be safely disposed of. Animal waste, when converted to biogas, these materials provide backup power for the facility, serve as a reservoir of fuel to help balance daily electricity demand, backup variable renewable electricity supply and further support local economies.</p>

<p>Likewise, wood chips, sawdust or possibly grass or wood fibre from marginal cropland can be used to provide heat and electricity through direct heat, co-generation or gasification systems. Within these facilities, the ability adjust output between heat and electricity again offers the potential to support daily demand and variable wind generation output.</p>  

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://www.nrel.gov/docs/gen/fy09/42857.pdfHto">http://www.nrel.gov/docs/gen/fy09/42857.pdfHto</a></h5>

<p>The best place for forest biomass is to remain in the forest as a part of the forest ecology where it sustains continued carbon absorption within the forest soil and growth. Selective harvesting of wood for value added use, especially where the removed timber effectively sequesters carbon within permanent structures, is a true renewable resource as long as forest practices are truly sustainable.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://www.safnet.org/documents/JOFSupplement.pdf">http://www.safnet.org/documents/JOFSupplement.pdf</a></h5> 

<p>Burning forest biomass is nominally carbon neutral and many Nova Scotians heat with wood so to the 
extent that this supply is sustainably harvested, the practice supports local forestry and provides a local inexpensive heating fuel. It is important to remember, though, that much of this heating demand can be eliminated through effective building insulation upgrading, sparing the homeowner precious labor and expense over the long run and extending the benefit of sustainable wood heat to a large group of Nova Scotians.</p>

<p>As a transition fuel prior to thorough home insulation, wood pellets from forest mill waste offer 
the opportunity to reduce the labor associated with wood heating.  Bulk pellet delivery and automated pellet burning appliances offer the convenience of heating oil without fossil greenhouse gas emissions and with the benefit of a secure local supply.  These systems are common in Europe and are being tested in New England and elsewhere.</p> 

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.growsmartmaine.org/pellet_boiler_incentive">http://www.growsmartmaine.org/pellet_boiler_incentive</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.maineenergysystems.com/Bulk_Pellet_Purchases.htm">http://www.maineenergysystems.com/Bulk_Pellet_Purchases.htm</a>
</h5>

<p>Most wood pellets, however, are exported to Europe, typically to be mixed with coal and burned in thermal electricity power plants. The sustainability of this use depends on the sustainability of the pellet source and the efficiency of the power plant in Europe. The economics depend heavily on the price differential between high European electricity rates, low North American timber values and low shipping costs. While it's use may be justified as a transition fuel, in the long term, electricity from forest biomass combustion will be best limited to small scale local high efficiency use.</p>

<p></p>
<h5>If you have a comment or want to recommend a link or find a broken link, please email us:<br> 
<a href="mailto:energy@ecologyaction.ca">energy@ecologyaction.ca</a></h5>

</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>

<script type="text/javascript">
jQuery(document).ready(function() { jQuery("a.sc-modal-link").fancybox({ "hideOnContentClick": true }); });
</script>
  • <p class="black-text">SOLAR energy can turn many electricity CONSUMERS into generators.</p>

<p class="blue-text">For less than the cost of a new truck,<br>photovoltaic panels can produce most
<br>of the electricity needed by an average<br>home,and they will last a lot longer!</p>

<a class="sc-button sc-modal-link alignleft light" style=" width: 150px; " href="#sc-modal-window-modal11">READ MORE</a>

<div style="display: none;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div id="sc-modal-window-modal11" class="sc-modal-content entry-content content-style" style="position:relative; width:600px; height:350px;">
<h3>READ MORE: Switch The Mix</h3>

<h1>WHY 2030?</h1>

<p>The scientific consensus on climate change and global warming is that we need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to below 80% of 1990 emissions by 2050.  Because replacing transportation fuels with alternates requires clean electricity and because it is easier to change stationary energy use it's important to develop clean electricity supplies well before 2050.</p>

<p>Is there enough renewable energy? 
<p>Renewable energy resources from wind, water and sun greatly exceeds our current, wasteful, energy use. Barriers to renewable energy are primarily social and political, not technological or economic. The energy cost in a renewable energy powered world should be similar to energy costs today.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://cwec.ucdavis.edu/forum2010/proceedings2/Jacobson_CWEC2010.pdf">http://cwec.ucdavis.edu/forum2010/proceedings2/Jacobson_CWEC2010.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/Articles/I/NewYorkWWSEnPolicy.pdf">http://www.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/Articles/I/NewYorkWWSEnPolicy.pdf</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/Articles/I/susenergy2030.html">http://www.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/Articles/I/susenergy2030.html</a>
</h5>

<p>Gradual transition from out current fossil system to renewable energy can be accomplished by ramping down fossil generation as renewable energy sources are incorporated into our electricity grid.</p> 

<p>The concept of wedges (Stabilization Wedges: Solving the Climate Problem for the Next 50 Years with Current Technologies, S. Pacala1, R. Socolow2)- starting small and increasing output or effect as the technology is well described by the Princeton Environmental Instituteís Carbon Mitigation Initiative and the approach will work well in Nova Scotia (and Canada).</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.sciencemag.org/content/305/5686/968.full?ijkey=Y58LIjdWjMPsw&keytype=ref&siteid=sci">http://www.sciencemag.org/content/305/5686/968.full?ijkey=Y58LIjdWjMPsw&keytype=ref&siteid=sci</a><br>
b: <a href="http://cmi.princeton.edu/wedges/">http://cmi.princeton.edu/wedges/</a>
</h5>

<p>Between now and 2030, the Nova Scotia economy will continue to grow. Traditionally, economic growth implies increased energy use, but in the last several decades, economic growth has been achieved with relatively no increase in overall energy use.  Energy use per unit of economic output has declined from  0.4 to .25 since 1971. Moreover, Canada ranks second last in energy efficiency (behind Brazil and ahead of Russia) in a 2012 study by the American Council for an energy efficient economy (ACEEE), so there is lots of room to improve.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.conferenceboard.ca/hcp/details/environment/energy-intensity.aspx">http://www.conferenceboard.ca/hcp/details/environment/energy-intensity.aspx</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.aceee.org/portal/national-policy/international-scorecard">http://www.aceee.org/portal/national-policy/international-scorecard</a>
</h5>


<p>For these reasons, the first and most important "Energy Wedge" is to use efficiency to reduce Nova Scotias annual electricity use from over 10,000 Gigawatt-hours to 8000 Gigawatt-hours while supporting ongoing economic growth.</p>  


<h1>SOLAR</h1>

<p>Solar photovoltaic panels prices continue to decline. Because they can be located on existing buildings to make double use of land already claimed for human use, they represent a win win for society and the environment: a cost becomes a source of income.</p>

<p>The 3400 acre Burnside Industrial Park has enough area to collect over 400 Gigwatt-hours of electricity each year. That's 5% of projected 2030 annual use. Even allowing for restricted use on rooftops alone, the park could provide 2-3% of Nova Scotia's annual electricity use. The advantage of coupling low rise industrial buildings and solar power is that daily electricity use, especially in the summer, peaks mid day when solar energy is the strongest and wind energy is often low. Local distribution level PV generation can counter peak demands from refrigeration and air conditioning that strain our summer time grids. While winter output is lower, well insulated buildings and greater wintertime wind output can help balance these effects.</p> 

<p>With an average daily solar intensity of 3.3 to 4.2 kwHr/m2, Nova Scotians can generate significant energy from the sun. A rooftop array on a 1500 square foot home would provide over 30 kilowatt hours per day, well above the use for many homes. Your local Solar Nova Scotia member can help you decide if solar energy is for you.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://pv.nrcan.gc.ca/index.php?lang=e">http://pv.nrcan.gc.ca/index.php?lang=e</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.solarns.ca/">http://www.solarns.ca/</a>
</h5>


<h5>Coming soon - solar PV report for Nova Scotia</h5>


<h1>WIND</h1>

<p>Wind energy is the most abundant accessible large scale renewable resource in Nova Scotia. The wind resource itself is large enough to power the province many times over but economic use of the resource must be undertaken carefully.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/EM/Wind/NS-Wind-Integration-Study-FINAL.pdf">http://www.gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/EM/Wind/NS-Wind-Integration-Study-FINAL.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.emeranl.com/site/media/emeranl/App%206.02%20NSPI%20Wind%20Integration%20Challenges%20Whi
tepaper.pdf">http://www.emeranl.com/site/media/emeranl/App%206.02%20NSPI%20Wind%20Integration%20Challenges%20Whi
tepaper.pdf</a>
</h5>

<p>Wind farm development must be undertaken with care because while our ecosystem and society benefit from renewable energy, each wind farm poses a disruption to the community where it is located. Here, risks, however small, fall upon the local ecosystem and residents. Policy for and development of wind farms must be acceptable to the local community.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/consult/_2013/wind_turbine-eoliennes/research_recherche-eng.php">http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/consult/_2013/wind_turbine-eoliennes/research_recherche-eng.php</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.ieawind.org/index_page_postings/RP/RP%2014%20Social_Acceptance_FINAL.pdf">http://www.ieawind.org/index_page_postings/RP/RP%2014%20Social_Acceptance_FINAL.pdf</a>
</h5>

<p>Stress, perception and expectations are intertwined psychological processes that have long helped individuals react to potentially threatening circumstances.  Unfortunately, these same processes can establish psychological expectations that alone lead to health complaints. For these reasons, all stakeholders must proceed openly and fairly and be very careful to listen and understand one and another.</p>   

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/2013-07740-001/">http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/2013-07740-001/</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.canwea.ca/">http://www.canwea.ca/</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/consult/_2013/wind_turbine-eoliennes/research_recherche-eng.php">http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/consult/_2013/wind_turbine-eoliennes/research_recherche-eng.php</a>
</h5>

<h1>HYDRO</h1>

<p>Hydroelectric generation is one of the oldest methods of generating renewable energy.  At a large scale it is disruptive to it's host watershed and at a small scale, it's potential is limited.  Within Nova Scotia there is very little potential for new hydro power generation and existing infrastructure continues to impact watershed ecosystems.</p> 

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.electricity.ca/media/Electricity101/Electricity101.pdf">http://www.electricity.ca/media/Electricity101/Electricity101.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://nsrenewables.ca/hydroelectricity-nova-scotia">http://nsrenewables.ca/hydroelectricity-nova-scotia</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.dal.ca/content/dam/dalhousie/pdf/science/environmental-science-program/Honours%20Theses/
Gillian_Fielding.pdf">http://www.dal.ca/content/dam/dalhousie/pdf/science/environmental-science-program/Honours%20Theses/
Gillian_Fielding.pdf</a>
</h5>

<p>Likewise, climate change threatens planet wide disruption of every watershed. It will be an ongoing challenge to fairly balance local disruption against global benefit.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</p>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.davidsuzuki.org/issues/climate-change/science/impacts/species-and-ecosystems/">http://www.davidsuzuki.org/issues/climate-change/science/impacts/species-and-ecosystems/</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/impacts-adaptation/ecosystems.html">http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/impacts-adaptation/ecosystems.html</a><br>
c: <a href="http://collectionscanada.gc.ca/webarchives2/20130322143115/http:/nrtee-trnee.ca/climate/climate-pro
sperity/the-economic-impacts-of-climate-change-for-canada/paying-the-price">http://collectionscanada.gc.ca/webarchives2/20130322143115/http:/nrtee-trnee.ca/climate/climate-pro
sperity/the-economic-impacts-of-climate-change-for-canada/paying-the-price</a>
</h5>

<p>Hydropower provides low cost electricity to several provinces within in Canada. It is the main reason that electricity rates remain low within British Columbia, Manitoba and Quebec where in addition to inexpensive electricity, these provinces derive significant income from sales to the United States. Improved east-west electricity transmission is required to extend these benefits to neighboring provinces. East-west generation and transmission development further enhances daily load balancing by extending the reach of existing hydro generation, variable wind generation and load following schedules.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://www.cdhowe.org/pdf/commentary_306.pdf">http://www.cdhowe.org/pdf/commentary_306.pdf</a></h5>

<p>Of the over 400 megawatts of capacity with Nova Scotia, much capacity is seasonally restricted or constrained to operate at full capacity for short periods of time.  As such, hydro electricity's principal benefit is that it can be used to help balance hourly demand against variable renewable generation.</p>  

<h1>TIDAL</h1>

<p>Tidal development continues within Nova Scotia. The strength of the tidal resource is both a challenge and an opportunity.  As the potential threats and advantages of this technology are explored, we will be able to judge it's ability to help Nova Scotia become Fossil Free.</p>

<h1>BIOMASS</h1>

<p>The most sustainable source of biomass is from agricultural and industrial waste. Typically, this material forms a waste stream within a farm or process that takes both time and money to be safely disposed of. Animal waste, when converted to biogas, these materials provide backup power for the facility, serve as a reservoir of fuel to help balance daily electricity demand, backup variable renewable electricity supply and further support local economies.</p>

<p>Likewise, wood chips, sawdust or possibly grass or wood fibre from marginal cropland can be used to provide heat and electricity through direct heat, co-generation or gasification systems. Within these facilities, the ability adjust output between heat and electricity again offers the potential to support daily demand and variable wind generation output.</p>  

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://www.nrel.gov/docs/gen/fy09/42857.pdfHto">http://www.nrel.gov/docs/gen/fy09/42857.pdfHto</a></h5>

<p>The best place for forest biomass is to remain in the forest as a part of the forest ecology where it sustains continued carbon absorption within the forest soil and growth. Selective harvesting of wood for value added use, especially where the removed timber effectively sequesters carbon within permanent structures, is a true renewable resource as long as forest practices are truly sustainable.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://www.safnet.org/documents/JOFSupplement.pdf">http://www.safnet.org/documents/JOFSupplement.pdf</a></h5> 

<p>Burning forest biomass is nominally carbon neutral and many Nova Scotians heat with wood so to the 
extent that this supply is sustainably harvested, the practice supports local forestry and provides a local inexpensive heating fuel. It is important to remember, though, that much of this heating demand can be eliminated through effective building insulation upgrading, sparing the homeowner precious labor and expense over the long run and extending the benefit of sustainable wood heat to a large group of Nova Scotians.</p>

<p>As a transition fuel prior to thorough home insulation, wood pellets from forest mill waste offer 
the opportunity to reduce the labor associated with wood heating.  Bulk pellet delivery and automated pellet burning appliances offer the convenience of heating oil without fossil greenhouse gas emissions and with the benefit of a secure local supply.  These systems are common in Europe and are being tested in New England and elsewhere.</p> 

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.growsmartmaine.org/pellet_boiler_incentive">http://www.growsmartmaine.org/pellet_boiler_incentive</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.maineenergysystems.com/Bulk_Pellet_Purchases.htm">http://www.maineenergysystems.com/Bulk_Pellet_Purchases.htm</a>
</h5>

<p>Most wood pellets, however, are exported to Europe, typically to be mixed with coal and burned in thermal electricity power plants. The sustainability of this use depends on the sustainability of the pellet source and the efficiency of the power plant in Europe. The economics depend heavily on the price differential between high European electricity rates, low North American timber values and low shipping costs. While it's use may be justified as a transition fuel, in the long term, electricity from forest biomass combustion will be best limited to small scale local high efficiency use.</p>

<p></p>
<h5>If you have a comment or want to recommend a link or find a broken link, please email us:<br> 
<a href="mailto:energy@ecologyaction.ca">energy@ecologyaction.ca</a></h5>

</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>

<script type="text/javascript">
jQuery(document).ready(function() { jQuery("a.sc-modal-link").fancybox({ "hideOnContentClick": true }); });
</script>
  • <p class="black-text">Solar energy plays well with others,<br>PEAKING when demand is strongest<br>and when the wind is often low.</p>

<p class="blue-text">The area of the Burnside Industrial Park<br>alone could produce 5% of Nova Scotia’s<br>electricity and BOOST the bottom line<br>of participating businesses.</p>

<a class="sc-button sc-modal-link alignleft light" style=" width: 150px; " href="#sc-modal-window-modal12">READ MORE</a>

<div style="display: none;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div id="sc-modal-window-modal12" class="sc-modal-content entry-content content-style" style="position:relative; width:600px; height:350px;">
<h3>READ MORE: Switch The Mix</h3>

<h1>WHY 2030?</h1>

<p>The scientific consensus on climate change and global warming is that we need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to below 80% of 1990 emissions by 2050.  Because replacing transportation fuels with alternates requires clean electricity and because it is easier to change stationary energy use it's important to develop clean electricity supplies well before 2050.</p>

<p>Is there enough renewable energy? 
<p>Renewable energy resources from wind, water and sun greatly exceeds our current, wasteful, energy use. Barriers to renewable energy are primarily social and political, not technological or economic. The energy cost in a renewable energy powered world should be similar to energy costs today.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://cwec.ucdavis.edu/forum2010/proceedings2/Jacobson_CWEC2010.pdf">http://cwec.ucdavis.edu/forum2010/proceedings2/Jacobson_CWEC2010.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/Articles/I/NewYorkWWSEnPolicy.pdf">http://www.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/Articles/I/NewYorkWWSEnPolicy.pdf</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/Articles/I/susenergy2030.html">http://www.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/Articles/I/susenergy2030.html</a>
</h5>

<p>Gradual transition from out current fossil system to renewable energy can be accomplished by ramping down fossil generation as renewable energy sources are incorporated into our electricity grid.</p> 

<p>The concept of wedges (Stabilization Wedges: Solving the Climate Problem for the Next 50 Years with Current Technologies, S. Pacala1, R. Socolow2)- starting small and increasing output or effect as the technology is well described by the Princeton Environmental Instituteís Carbon Mitigation Initiative and the approach will work well in Nova Scotia (and Canada).</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.sciencemag.org/content/305/5686/968.full?ijkey=Y58LIjdWjMPsw&keytype=ref&siteid=sci">http://www.sciencemag.org/content/305/5686/968.full?ijkey=Y58LIjdWjMPsw&keytype=ref&siteid=sci</a><br>
b: <a href="http://cmi.princeton.edu/wedges/">http://cmi.princeton.edu/wedges/</a>
</h5>

<p>Between now and 2030, the Nova Scotia economy will continue to grow. Traditionally, economic growth implies increased energy use, but in the last several decades, economic growth has been achieved with relatively no increase in overall energy use.  Energy use per unit of economic output has declined from  0.4 to .25 since 1971. Moreover, Canada ranks second last in energy efficiency (behind Brazil and ahead of Russia) in a 2012 study by the American Council for an energy efficient economy (ACEEE), so there is lots of room to improve.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.conferenceboard.ca/hcp/details/environment/energy-intensity.aspx">http://www.conferenceboard.ca/hcp/details/environment/energy-intensity.aspx</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.aceee.org/portal/national-policy/international-scorecard">http://www.aceee.org/portal/national-policy/international-scorecard</a>
</h5>


<p>For these reasons, the first and most important "Energy Wedge" is to use efficiency to reduce Nova Scotias annual electricity use from over 10,000 Gigawatt-hours to 8000 Gigawatt-hours while supporting ongoing economic growth.</p>  


<h1>SOLAR</h1>

<p>Solar photovoltaic panels prices continue to decline. Because they can be located on existing buildings to make double use of land already claimed for human use, they represent a win win for society and the environment: a cost becomes a source of income.</p>

<p>The 3400 acre Burnside Industrial Park has enough area to collect over 400 Gigwatt-hours of electricity each year. That's 5% of projected 2030 annual use. Even allowing for restricted use on rooftops alone, the park could provide 2-3% of Nova Scotia's annual electricity use. The advantage of coupling low rise industrial buildings and solar power is that daily electricity use, especially in the summer, peaks mid day when solar energy is the strongest and wind energy is often low. Local distribution level PV generation can counter peak demands from refrigeration and air conditioning that strain our summer time grids. While winter output is lower, well insulated buildings and greater wintertime wind output can help balance these effects.</p> 

<p>With an average daily solar intensity of 3.3 to 4.2 kwHr/m2, Nova Scotians can generate significant energy from the sun. A rooftop array on a 1500 square foot home would provide over 30 kilowatt hours per day, well above the use for many homes. Your local Solar Nova Scotia member can help you decide if solar energy is for you.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://pv.nrcan.gc.ca/index.php?lang=e">http://pv.nrcan.gc.ca/index.php?lang=e</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.solarns.ca/">http://www.solarns.ca/</a>
</h5>


<h5>Coming soon - solar PV report for Nova Scotia</h5>


<h1>WIND</h1>

<p>Wind energy is the most abundant accessible large scale renewable resource in Nova Scotia. The wind resource itself is large enough to power the province many times over but economic use of the resource must be undertaken carefully.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/EM/Wind/NS-Wind-Integration-Study-FINAL.pdf">http://www.gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/EM/Wind/NS-Wind-Integration-Study-FINAL.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.emeranl.com/site/media/emeranl/App%206.02%20NSPI%20Wind%20Integration%20Challenges%20Whi
tepaper.pdf">http://www.emeranl.com/site/media/emeranl/App%206.02%20NSPI%20Wind%20Integration%20Challenges%20Whi
tepaper.pdf</a>
</h5>

<p>Wind farm development must be undertaken with care because while our ecosystem and society benefit from renewable energy, each wind farm poses a disruption to the community where it is located. Here, risks, however small, fall upon the local ecosystem and residents. Policy for and development of wind farms must be acceptable to the local community.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/consult/_2013/wind_turbine-eoliennes/research_recherche-eng.php">http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/consult/_2013/wind_turbine-eoliennes/research_recherche-eng.php</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.ieawind.org/index_page_postings/RP/RP%2014%20Social_Acceptance_FINAL.pdf">http://www.ieawind.org/index_page_postings/RP/RP%2014%20Social_Acceptance_FINAL.pdf</a>
</h5>

<p>Stress, perception and expectations are intertwined psychological processes that have long helped individuals react to potentially threatening circumstances.  Unfortunately, these same processes can establish psychological expectations that alone lead to health complaints. For these reasons, all stakeholders must proceed openly and fairly and be very careful to listen and understand one and another.</p>   

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/2013-07740-001/">http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/2013-07740-001/</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.canwea.ca/">http://www.canwea.ca/</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/consult/_2013/wind_turbine-eoliennes/research_recherche-eng.php">http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/consult/_2013/wind_turbine-eoliennes/research_recherche-eng.php</a>
</h5>

<h1>HYDRO</h1>

<p>Hydroelectric generation is one of the oldest methods of generating renewable energy.  At a large scale it is disruptive to it's host watershed and at a small scale, it's potential is limited.  Within Nova Scotia there is very little potential for new hydro power generation and existing infrastructure continues to impact watershed ecosystems.</p> 

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.electricity.ca/media/Electricity101/Electricity101.pdf">http://www.electricity.ca/media/Electricity101/Electricity101.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://nsrenewables.ca/hydroelectricity-nova-scotia">http://nsrenewables.ca/hydroelectricity-nova-scotia</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.dal.ca/content/dam/dalhousie/pdf/science/environmental-science-program/Honours%20Theses/
Gillian_Fielding.pdf">http://www.dal.ca/content/dam/dalhousie/pdf/science/environmental-science-program/Honours%20Theses/
Gillian_Fielding.pdf</a>
</h5>

<p>Likewise, climate change threatens planet wide disruption of every watershed. It will be an ongoing challenge to fairly balance local disruption against global benefit.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</p>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.davidsuzuki.org/issues/climate-change/science/impacts/species-and-ecosystems/">http://www.davidsuzuki.org/issues/climate-change/science/impacts/species-and-ecosystems/</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/impacts-adaptation/ecosystems.html">http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/impacts-adaptation/ecosystems.html</a><br>
c: <a href="http://collectionscanada.gc.ca/webarchives2/20130322143115/http:/nrtee-trnee.ca/climate/climate-pro
sperity/the-economic-impacts-of-climate-change-for-canada/paying-the-price">http://collectionscanada.gc.ca/webarchives2/20130322143115/http:/nrtee-trnee.ca/climate/climate-pro
sperity/the-economic-impacts-of-climate-change-for-canada/paying-the-price</a>
</h5>

<p>Hydropower provides low cost electricity to several provinces within in Canada. It is the main reason that electricity rates remain low within British Columbia, Manitoba and Quebec where in addition to inexpensive electricity, these provinces derive significant income from sales to the United States. Improved east-west electricity transmission is required to extend these benefits to neighboring provinces. East-west generation and transmission development further enhances daily load balancing by extending the reach of existing hydro generation, variable wind generation and load following schedules.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://www.cdhowe.org/pdf/commentary_306.pdf">http://www.cdhowe.org/pdf/commentary_306.pdf</a></h5>

<p>Of the over 400 megawatts of capacity with Nova Scotia, much capacity is seasonally restricted or constrained to operate at full capacity for short periods of time.  As such, hydro electricity's principal benefit is that it can be used to help balance hourly demand against variable renewable generation.</p>  

<h1>TIDAL</h1>

<p>Tidal development continues within Nova Scotia. The strength of the tidal resource is both a challenge and an opportunity.  As the potential threats and advantages of this technology are explored, we will be able to judge it's ability to help Nova Scotia become Fossil Free.</p>

<h1>BIOMASS</h1>

<p>The most sustainable source of biomass is from agricultural and industrial waste. Typically, this material forms a waste stream within a farm or process that takes both time and money to be safely disposed of. Animal waste, when converted to biogas, these materials provide backup power for the facility, serve as a reservoir of fuel to help balance daily electricity demand, backup variable renewable electricity supply and further support local economies.</p>

<p>Likewise, wood chips, sawdust or possibly grass or wood fibre from marginal cropland can be used to provide heat and electricity through direct heat, co-generation or gasification systems. Within these facilities, the ability adjust output between heat and electricity again offers the potential to support daily demand and variable wind generation output.</p>  

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://www.nrel.gov/docs/gen/fy09/42857.pdfHto">http://www.nrel.gov/docs/gen/fy09/42857.pdfHto</a></h5>

<p>The best place for forest biomass is to remain in the forest as a part of the forest ecology where it sustains continued carbon absorption within the forest soil and growth. Selective harvesting of wood for value added use, especially where the removed timber effectively sequesters carbon within permanent structures, is a true renewable resource as long as forest practices are truly sustainable.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://www.safnet.org/documents/JOFSupplement.pdf">http://www.safnet.org/documents/JOFSupplement.pdf</a></h5> 

<p>Burning forest biomass is nominally carbon neutral and many Nova Scotians heat with wood so to the 
extent that this supply is sustainably harvested, the practice supports local forestry and provides a local inexpensive heating fuel. It is important to remember, though, that much of this heating demand can be eliminated through effective building insulation upgrading, sparing the homeowner precious labor and expense over the long run and extending the benefit of sustainable wood heat to a large group of Nova Scotians.</p>

<p>As a transition fuel prior to thorough home insulation, wood pellets from forest mill waste offer 
the opportunity to reduce the labor associated with wood heating.  Bulk pellet delivery and automated pellet burning appliances offer the convenience of heating oil without fossil greenhouse gas emissions and with the benefit of a secure local supply.  These systems are common in Europe and are being tested in New England and elsewhere.</p> 

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.growsmartmaine.org/pellet_boiler_incentive">http://www.growsmartmaine.org/pellet_boiler_incentive</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.maineenergysystems.com/Bulk_Pellet_Purchases.htm">http://www.maineenergysystems.com/Bulk_Pellet_Purchases.htm</a>
</h5>

<p>Most wood pellets, however, are exported to Europe, typically to be mixed with coal and burned in thermal electricity power plants. The sustainability of this use depends on the sustainability of the pellet source and the efficiency of the power plant in Europe. The economics depend heavily on the price differential between high European electricity rates, low North American timber values and low shipping costs. While it's use may be justified as a transition fuel, in the long term, electricity from forest biomass combustion will be best limited to small scale local high efficiency use.</p>

<p></p>
<h5>If you have a comment or want to recommend a link or find a broken link, please email us:<br> 
<a href="mailto:energy@ecologyaction.ca">energy@ecologyaction.ca</a></h5>

</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>

<script type="text/javascript">
jQuery(document).ready(function() { jQuery("a.sc-modal-link").fancybox({ "hideOnContentClick": true }); });
</script>
  • <p class="black-text">WIND is cheaper than coal TODAY.<br>By 2030, half our electricity will come from<br>wind.We are already 20% of the way there.</p>

<p class="blue-text">Because the WIND is variable, it works<br>best with a good transmission grid<br>and other renewable sources.</p>

<a class="sc-button sc-modal-link alignleft light" style=" width: 150px; " href="#sc-modal-window-modal13">READ MORE</a>

<div style="display: none;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div id="sc-modal-window-modal13" class="sc-modal-content entry-content content-style" style="position:relative; width:600px; height:350px;">
<h3>READ MORE: Switch The Mix</h3>

<h1>WHY 2030?</h1>

<p>The scientific consensus on climate change and global warming is that we need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to below 80% of 1990 emissions by 2050.  Because replacing transportation fuels with alternates requires clean electricity and because it is easier to change stationary energy use it's important to develop clean electricity supplies well before 2050.</p>

<p>Is there enough renewable energy? 
<p>Renewable energy resources from wind, water and sun greatly exceeds our current, wasteful, energy use. Barriers to renewable energy are primarily social and political, not technological or economic. The energy cost in a renewable energy powered world should be similar to energy costs today.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://cwec.ucdavis.edu/forum2010/proceedings2/Jacobson_CWEC2010.pdf">http://cwec.ucdavis.edu/forum2010/proceedings2/Jacobson_CWEC2010.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/Articles/I/NewYorkWWSEnPolicy.pdf">http://www.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/Articles/I/NewYorkWWSEnPolicy.pdf</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/Articles/I/susenergy2030.html">http://www.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/Articles/I/susenergy2030.html</a>
</h5>

<p>Gradual transition from out current fossil system to renewable energy can be accomplished by ramping down fossil generation as renewable energy sources are incorporated into our electricity grid.</p> 

<p>The concept of wedges (Stabilization Wedges: Solving the Climate Problem for the Next 50 Years with Current Technologies, S. Pacala1, R. Socolow2)- starting small and increasing output or effect as the technology is well described by the Princeton Environmental Instituteís Carbon Mitigation Initiative and the approach will work well in Nova Scotia (and Canada).</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.sciencemag.org/content/305/5686/968.full?ijkey=Y58LIjdWjMPsw&keytype=ref&siteid=sci">http://www.sciencemag.org/content/305/5686/968.full?ijkey=Y58LIjdWjMPsw&keytype=ref&siteid=sci</a><br>
b: <a href="http://cmi.princeton.edu/wedges/">http://cmi.princeton.edu/wedges/</a>
</h5>

<p>Between now and 2030, the Nova Scotia economy will continue to grow. Traditionally, economic growth implies increased energy use, but in the last several decades, economic growth has been achieved with relatively no increase in overall energy use.  Energy use per unit of economic output has declined from  0.4 to .25 since 1971. Moreover, Canada ranks second last in energy efficiency (behind Brazil and ahead of Russia) in a 2012 study by the American Council for an energy efficient economy (ACEEE), so there is lots of room to improve.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.conferenceboard.ca/hcp/details/environment/energy-intensity.aspx">http://www.conferenceboard.ca/hcp/details/environment/energy-intensity.aspx</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.aceee.org/portal/national-policy/international-scorecard">http://www.aceee.org/portal/national-policy/international-scorecard</a>
</h5>


<p>For these reasons, the first and most important "Energy Wedge" is to use efficiency to reduce Nova Scotias annual electricity use from over 10,000 Gigawatt-hours to 8000 Gigawatt-hours while supporting ongoing economic growth.</p>  


<h1>SOLAR</h1>

<p>Solar photovoltaic panels prices continue to decline. Because they can be located on existing buildings to make double use of land already claimed for human use, they represent a win win for society and the environment: a cost becomes a source of income.</p>

<p>The 3400 acre Burnside Industrial Park has enough area to collect over 400 Gigwatt-hours of electricity each year. That's 5% of projected 2030 annual use. Even allowing for restricted use on rooftops alone, the park could provide 2-3% of Nova Scotia's annual electricity use. The advantage of coupling low rise industrial buildings and solar power is that daily electricity use, especially in the summer, peaks mid day when solar energy is the strongest and wind energy is often low. Local distribution level PV generation can counter peak demands from refrigeration and air conditioning that strain our summer time grids. While winter output is lower, well insulated buildings and greater wintertime wind output can help balance these effects.</p> 

<p>With an average daily solar intensity of 3.3 to 4.2 kwHr/m2, Nova Scotians can generate significant energy from the sun. A rooftop array on a 1500 square foot home would provide over 30 kilowatt hours per day, well above the use for many homes. Your local Solar Nova Scotia member can help you decide if solar energy is for you.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://pv.nrcan.gc.ca/index.php?lang=e">http://pv.nrcan.gc.ca/index.php?lang=e</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.solarns.ca/">http://www.solarns.ca/</a>
</h5>


<h5>Coming soon - solar PV report for Nova Scotia</h5>


<h1>WIND</h1>

<p>Wind energy is the most abundant accessible large scale renewable resource in Nova Scotia. The wind resource itself is large enough to power the province many times over but economic use of the resource must be undertaken carefully.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/EM/Wind/NS-Wind-Integration-Study-FINAL.pdf">http://www.gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/EM/Wind/NS-Wind-Integration-Study-FINAL.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.emeranl.com/site/media/emeranl/App%206.02%20NSPI%20Wind%20Integration%20Challenges%20Whi
tepaper.pdf">http://www.emeranl.com/site/media/emeranl/App%206.02%20NSPI%20Wind%20Integration%20Challenges%20Whi
tepaper.pdf</a>
</h5>

<p>Wind farm development must be undertaken with care because while our ecosystem and society benefit from renewable energy, each wind farm poses a disruption to the community where it is located. Here, risks, however small, fall upon the local ecosystem and residents. Policy for and development of wind farms must be acceptable to the local community.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/consult/_2013/wind_turbine-eoliennes/research_recherche-eng.php">http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/consult/_2013/wind_turbine-eoliennes/research_recherche-eng.php</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.ieawind.org/index_page_postings/RP/RP%2014%20Social_Acceptance_FINAL.pdf">http://www.ieawind.org/index_page_postings/RP/RP%2014%20Social_Acceptance_FINAL.pdf</a>
</h5>

<p>Stress, perception and expectations are intertwined psychological processes that have long helped individuals react to potentially threatening circumstances.  Unfortunately, these same processes can establish psychological expectations that alone lead to health complaints. For these reasons, all stakeholders must proceed openly and fairly and be very careful to listen and understand one and another.</p>   

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/2013-07740-001/">http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/2013-07740-001/</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.canwea.ca/">http://www.canwea.ca/</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/consult/_2013/wind_turbine-eoliennes/research_recherche-eng.php">http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/consult/_2013/wind_turbine-eoliennes/research_recherche-eng.php</a>
</h5>

<h1>HYDRO</h1>

<p>Hydroelectric generation is one of the oldest methods of generating renewable energy.  At a large scale it is disruptive to it's host watershed and at a small scale, it's potential is limited.  Within Nova Scotia there is very little potential for new hydro power generation and existing infrastructure continues to impact watershed ecosystems.</p> 

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.electricity.ca/media/Electricity101/Electricity101.pdf">http://www.electricity.ca/media/Electricity101/Electricity101.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://nsrenewables.ca/hydroelectricity-nova-scotia">http://nsrenewables.ca/hydroelectricity-nova-scotia</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.dal.ca/content/dam/dalhousie/pdf/science/environmental-science-program/Honours%20Theses/
Gillian_Fielding.pdf">http://www.dal.ca/content/dam/dalhousie/pdf/science/environmental-science-program/Honours%20Theses/
Gillian_Fielding.pdf</a>
</h5>

<p>Likewise, climate change threatens planet wide disruption of every watershed. It will be an ongoing challenge to fairly balance local disruption against global benefit.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</p>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.davidsuzuki.org/issues/climate-change/science/impacts/species-and-ecosystems/">http://www.davidsuzuki.org/issues/climate-change/science/impacts/species-and-ecosystems/</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/impacts-adaptation/ecosystems.html">http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/impacts-adaptation/ecosystems.html</a><br>
c: <a href="http://collectionscanada.gc.ca/webarchives2/20130322143115/http:/nrtee-trnee.ca/climate/climate-pro
sperity/the-economic-impacts-of-climate-change-for-canada/paying-the-price">http://collectionscanada.gc.ca/webarchives2/20130322143115/http:/nrtee-trnee.ca/climate/climate-pro
sperity/the-economic-impacts-of-climate-change-for-canada/paying-the-price</a>
</h5>

<p>Hydropower provides low cost electricity to several provinces within in Canada. It is the main reason that electricity rates remain low within British Columbia, Manitoba and Quebec where in addition to inexpensive electricity, these provinces derive significant income from sales to the United States. Improved east-west electricity transmission is required to extend these benefits to neighboring provinces. East-west generation and transmission development further enhances daily load balancing by extending the reach of existing hydro generation, variable wind generation and load following schedules.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://www.cdhowe.org/pdf/commentary_306.pdf">http://www.cdhowe.org/pdf/commentary_306.pdf</a></h5>

<p>Of the over 400 megawatts of capacity with Nova Scotia, much capacity is seasonally restricted or constrained to operate at full capacity for short periods of time.  As such, hydro electricity's principal benefit is that it can be used to help balance hourly demand against variable renewable generation.</p>  

<h1>TIDAL</h1>

<p>Tidal development continues within Nova Scotia. The strength of the tidal resource is both a challenge and an opportunity.  As the potential threats and advantages of this technology are explored, we will be able to judge it's ability to help Nova Scotia become Fossil Free.</p>

<h1>BIOMASS</h1>

<p>The most sustainable source of biomass is from agricultural and industrial waste. Typically, this material forms a waste stream within a farm or process that takes both time and money to be safely disposed of. Animal waste, when converted to biogas, these materials provide backup power for the facility, serve as a reservoir of fuel to help balance daily electricity demand, backup variable renewable electricity supply and further support local economies.</p>

<p>Likewise, wood chips, sawdust or possibly grass or wood fibre from marginal cropland can be used to provide heat and electricity through direct heat, co-generation or gasification systems. Within these facilities, the ability adjust output between heat and electricity again offers the potential to support daily demand and variable wind generation output.</p>  

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://www.nrel.gov/docs/gen/fy09/42857.pdfHto">http://www.nrel.gov/docs/gen/fy09/42857.pdfHto</a></h5>

<p>The best place for forest biomass is to remain in the forest as a part of the forest ecology where it sustains continued carbon absorption within the forest soil and growth. Selective harvesting of wood for value added use, especially where the removed timber effectively sequesters carbon within permanent structures, is a true renewable resource as long as forest practices are truly sustainable.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://www.safnet.org/documents/JOFSupplement.pdf">http://www.safnet.org/documents/JOFSupplement.pdf</a></h5> 

<p>Burning forest biomass is nominally carbon neutral and many Nova Scotians heat with wood so to the 
extent that this supply is sustainably harvested, the practice supports local forestry and provides a local inexpensive heating fuel. It is important to remember, though, that much of this heating demand can be eliminated through effective building insulation upgrading, sparing the homeowner precious labor and expense over the long run and extending the benefit of sustainable wood heat to a large group of Nova Scotians.</p>

<p>As a transition fuel prior to thorough home insulation, wood pellets from forest mill waste offer 
the opportunity to reduce the labor associated with wood heating.  Bulk pellet delivery and automated pellet burning appliances offer the convenience of heating oil without fossil greenhouse gas emissions and with the benefit of a secure local supply.  These systems are common in Europe and are being tested in New England and elsewhere.</p> 

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.growsmartmaine.org/pellet_boiler_incentive">http://www.growsmartmaine.org/pellet_boiler_incentive</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.maineenergysystems.com/Bulk_Pellet_Purchases.htm">http://www.maineenergysystems.com/Bulk_Pellet_Purchases.htm</a>
</h5>

<p>Most wood pellets, however, are exported to Europe, typically to be mixed with coal and burned in thermal electricity power plants. The sustainability of this use depends on the sustainability of the pellet source and the efficiency of the power plant in Europe. The economics depend heavily on the price differential between high European electricity rates, low North American timber values and low shipping costs. While it's use may be justified as a transition fuel, in the long term, electricity from forest biomass combustion will be best limited to small scale local high efficiency use.</p>

<p></p>
<h5>If you have a comment or want to recommend a link or find a broken link, please email us:<br> 
<a href="mailto:energy@ecologyaction.ca">energy@ecologyaction.ca</a></h5>

</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>

<script type="text/javascript">
jQuery(document).ready(function() { jQuery("a.sc-modal-link").fancybox({ "hideOnContentClick": true }); });
</script>
  • <p class="blue-text">Wind farm risks are SMALL when compared with their benefits. Communities around<br>wind farms should be able to BENEFIT<br>directly from them.</p>

<p class="black-text">As we transition and switch the mix,<br>we will have to establish NEW approaches<br>to wind development.</p>

<a class="sc-button sc-modal-link alignleft light" style=" width: 150px; " href="#sc-modal-window-modal14">READ MORE</a>

<div style="display: none;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div id="sc-modal-window-modal14" class="sc-modal-content entry-content content-style" style="position:relative; width:600px; height:350px;">
<h3>READ MORE: Switch The Mix</h3>

<h1>WHY 2030?</h1>

<p>The scientific consensus on climate change and global warming is that we need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to below 80% of 1990 emissions by 2050.  Because replacing transportation fuels with alternates requires clean electricity and because it is easier to change stationary energy use it's important to develop clean electricity supplies well before 2050.</p>

<p>Is there enough renewable energy? 
<p>Renewable energy resources from wind, water and sun greatly exceeds our current, wasteful, energy use. Barriers to renewable energy are primarily social and political, not technological or economic. The energy cost in a renewable energy powered world should be similar to energy costs today.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://cwec.ucdavis.edu/forum2010/proceedings2/Jacobson_CWEC2010.pdf">http://cwec.ucdavis.edu/forum2010/proceedings2/Jacobson_CWEC2010.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/Articles/I/NewYorkWWSEnPolicy.pdf">http://www.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/Articles/I/NewYorkWWSEnPolicy.pdf</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/Articles/I/susenergy2030.html">http://www.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/Articles/I/susenergy2030.html</a>
</h5>

<p>Gradual transition from out current fossil system to renewable energy can be accomplished by ramping down fossil generation as renewable energy sources are incorporated into our electricity grid.</p> 

<p>The concept of wedges (Stabilization Wedges: Solving the Climate Problem for the Next 50 Years with Current Technologies, S. Pacala1, R. Socolow2)- starting small and increasing output or effect as the technology is well described by the Princeton Environmental Instituteís Carbon Mitigation Initiative and the approach will work well in Nova Scotia (and Canada).</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.sciencemag.org/content/305/5686/968.full?ijkey=Y58LIjdWjMPsw&keytype=ref&siteid=sci">http://www.sciencemag.org/content/305/5686/968.full?ijkey=Y58LIjdWjMPsw&keytype=ref&siteid=sci</a><br>
b: <a href="http://cmi.princeton.edu/wedges/">http://cmi.princeton.edu/wedges/</a>
</h5>

<p>Between now and 2030, the Nova Scotia economy will continue to grow. Traditionally, economic growth implies increased energy use, but in the last several decades, economic growth has been achieved with relatively no increase in overall energy use.  Energy use per unit of economic output has declined from  0.4 to .25 since 1971. Moreover, Canada ranks second last in energy efficiency (behind Brazil and ahead of Russia) in a 2012 study by the American Council for an energy efficient economy (ACEEE), so there is lots of room to improve.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.conferenceboard.ca/hcp/details/environment/energy-intensity.aspx">http://www.conferenceboard.ca/hcp/details/environment/energy-intensity.aspx</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.aceee.org/portal/national-policy/international-scorecard">http://www.aceee.org/portal/national-policy/international-scorecard</a>
</h5>


<p>For these reasons, the first and most important "Energy Wedge" is to use efficiency to reduce Nova Scotias annual electricity use from over 10,000 Gigawatt-hours to 8000 Gigawatt-hours while supporting ongoing economic growth.</p>  


<h1>SOLAR</h1>

<p>Solar photovoltaic panels prices continue to decline. Because they can be located on existing buildings to make double use of land already claimed for human use, they represent a win win for society and the environment: a cost becomes a source of income.</p>

<p>The 3400 acre Burnside Industrial Park has enough area to collect over 400 Gigwatt-hours of electricity each year. That's 5% of projected 2030 annual use. Even allowing for restricted use on rooftops alone, the park could provide 2-3% of Nova Scotia's annual electricity use. The advantage of coupling low rise industrial buildings and solar power is that daily electricity use, especially in the summer, peaks mid day when solar energy is the strongest and wind energy is often low. Local distribution level PV generation can counter peak demands from refrigeration and air conditioning that strain our summer time grids. While winter output is lower, well insulated buildings and greater wintertime wind output can help balance these effects.</p> 

<p>With an average daily solar intensity of 3.3 to 4.2 kwHr/m2, Nova Scotians can generate significant energy from the sun. A rooftop array on a 1500 square foot home would provide over 30 kilowatt hours per day, well above the use for many homes. Your local Solar Nova Scotia member can help you decide if solar energy is for you.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://pv.nrcan.gc.ca/index.php?lang=e">http://pv.nrcan.gc.ca/index.php?lang=e</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.solarns.ca/">http://www.solarns.ca/</a>
</h5>


<h5>Coming soon - solar PV report for Nova Scotia</h5>


<h1>WIND</h1>

<p>Wind energy is the most abundant accessible large scale renewable resource in Nova Scotia. The wind resource itself is large enough to power the province many times over but economic use of the resource must be undertaken carefully.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/EM/Wind/NS-Wind-Integration-Study-FINAL.pdf">http://www.gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/EM/Wind/NS-Wind-Integration-Study-FINAL.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.emeranl.com/site/media/emeranl/App%206.02%20NSPI%20Wind%20Integration%20Challenges%20Whi
tepaper.pdf">http://www.emeranl.com/site/media/emeranl/App%206.02%20NSPI%20Wind%20Integration%20Challenges%20Whi
tepaper.pdf</a>
</h5>

<p>Wind farm development must be undertaken with care because while our ecosystem and society benefit from renewable energy, each wind farm poses a disruption to the community where it is located. Here, risks, however small, fall upon the local ecosystem and residents. Policy for and development of wind farms must be acceptable to the local community.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/consult/_2013/wind_turbine-eoliennes/research_recherche-eng.php">http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/consult/_2013/wind_turbine-eoliennes/research_recherche-eng.php</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.ieawind.org/index_page_postings/RP/RP%2014%20Social_Acceptance_FINAL.pdf">http://www.ieawind.org/index_page_postings/RP/RP%2014%20Social_Acceptance_FINAL.pdf</a>
</h5>

<p>Stress, perception and expectations are intertwined psychological processes that have long helped individuals react to potentially threatening circumstances.  Unfortunately, these same processes can establish psychological expectations that alone lead to health complaints. For these reasons, all stakeholders must proceed openly and fairly and be very careful to listen and understand one and another.</p>   

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/2013-07740-001/">http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/2013-07740-001/</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.canwea.ca/">http://www.canwea.ca/</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/consult/_2013/wind_turbine-eoliennes/research_recherche-eng.php">http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/consult/_2013/wind_turbine-eoliennes/research_recherche-eng.php</a>
</h5>

<h1>HYDRO</h1>

<p>Hydroelectric generation is one of the oldest methods of generating renewable energy.  At a large scale it is disruptive to it's host watershed and at a small scale, it's potential is limited.  Within Nova Scotia there is very little potential for new hydro power generation and existing infrastructure continues to impact watershed ecosystems.</p> 

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.electricity.ca/media/Electricity101/Electricity101.pdf">http://www.electricity.ca/media/Electricity101/Electricity101.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://nsrenewables.ca/hydroelectricity-nova-scotia">http://nsrenewables.ca/hydroelectricity-nova-scotia</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.dal.ca/content/dam/dalhousie/pdf/science/environmental-science-program/Honours%20Theses/
Gillian_Fielding.pdf">http://www.dal.ca/content/dam/dalhousie/pdf/science/environmental-science-program/Honours%20Theses/
Gillian_Fielding.pdf</a>
</h5>

<p>Likewise, climate change threatens planet wide disruption of every watershed. It will be an ongoing challenge to fairly balance local disruption against global benefit.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</p>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.davidsuzuki.org/issues/climate-change/science/impacts/species-and-ecosystems/">http://www.davidsuzuki.org/issues/climate-change/science/impacts/species-and-ecosystems/</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/impacts-adaptation/ecosystems.html">http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/impacts-adaptation/ecosystems.html</a><br>
c: <a href="http://collectionscanada.gc.ca/webarchives2/20130322143115/http:/nrtee-trnee.ca/climate/climate-pro
sperity/the-economic-impacts-of-climate-change-for-canada/paying-the-price">http://collectionscanada.gc.ca/webarchives2/20130322143115/http:/nrtee-trnee.ca/climate/climate-pro
sperity/the-economic-impacts-of-climate-change-for-canada/paying-the-price</a>
</h5>

<p>Hydropower provides low cost electricity to several provinces within in Canada. It is the main reason that electricity rates remain low within British Columbia, Manitoba and Quebec where in addition to inexpensive electricity, these provinces derive significant income from sales to the United States. Improved east-west electricity transmission is required to extend these benefits to neighboring provinces. East-west generation and transmission development further enhances daily load balancing by extending the reach of existing hydro generation, variable wind generation and load following schedules.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://www.cdhowe.org/pdf/commentary_306.pdf">http://www.cdhowe.org/pdf/commentary_306.pdf</a></h5>

<p>Of the over 400 megawatts of capacity with Nova Scotia, much capacity is seasonally restricted or constrained to operate at full capacity for short periods of time.  As such, hydro electricity's principal benefit is that it can be used to help balance hourly demand against variable renewable generation.</p>  

<h1>TIDAL</h1>

<p>Tidal development continues within Nova Scotia. The strength of the tidal resource is both a challenge and an opportunity.  As the potential threats and advantages of this technology are explored, we will be able to judge it's ability to help Nova Scotia become Fossil Free.</p>

<h1>BIOMASS</h1>

<p>The most sustainable source of biomass is from agricultural and industrial waste. Typically, this material forms a waste stream within a farm or process that takes both time and money to be safely disposed of. Animal waste, when converted to biogas, these materials provide backup power for the facility, serve as a reservoir of fuel to help balance daily electricity demand, backup variable renewable electricity supply and further support local economies.</p>

<p>Likewise, wood chips, sawdust or possibly grass or wood fibre from marginal cropland can be used to provide heat and electricity through direct heat, co-generation or gasification systems. Within these facilities, the ability adjust output between heat and electricity again offers the potential to support daily demand and variable wind generation output.</p>  

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://www.nrel.gov/docs/gen/fy09/42857.pdfHto">http://www.nrel.gov/docs/gen/fy09/42857.pdfHto</a></h5>

<p>The best place for forest biomass is to remain in the forest as a part of the forest ecology where it sustains continued carbon absorption within the forest soil and growth. Selective harvesting of wood for value added use, especially where the removed timber effectively sequesters carbon within permanent structures, is a true renewable resource as long as forest practices are truly sustainable.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://www.safnet.org/documents/JOFSupplement.pdf">http://www.safnet.org/documents/JOFSupplement.pdf</a></h5> 

<p>Burning forest biomass is nominally carbon neutral and many Nova Scotians heat with wood so to the 
extent that this supply is sustainably harvested, the practice supports local forestry and provides a local inexpensive heating fuel. It is important to remember, though, that much of this heating demand can be eliminated through effective building insulation upgrading, sparing the homeowner precious labor and expense over the long run and extending the benefit of sustainable wood heat to a large group of Nova Scotians.</p>

<p>As a transition fuel prior to thorough home insulation, wood pellets from forest mill waste offer 
the opportunity to reduce the labor associated with wood heating.  Bulk pellet delivery and automated pellet burning appliances offer the convenience of heating oil without fossil greenhouse gas emissions and with the benefit of a secure local supply.  These systems are common in Europe and are being tested in New England and elsewhere.</p> 

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.growsmartmaine.org/pellet_boiler_incentive">http://www.growsmartmaine.org/pellet_boiler_incentive</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.maineenergysystems.com/Bulk_Pellet_Purchases.htm">http://www.maineenergysystems.com/Bulk_Pellet_Purchases.htm</a>
</h5>

<p>Most wood pellets, however, are exported to Europe, typically to be mixed with coal and burned in thermal electricity power plants. The sustainability of this use depends on the sustainability of the pellet source and the efficiency of the power plant in Europe. The economics depend heavily on the price differential between high European electricity rates, low North American timber values and low shipping costs. While it's use may be justified as a transition fuel, in the long term, electricity from forest biomass combustion will be best limited to small scale local high efficiency use.</p>

<p></p>
<h5>If you have a comment or want to recommend a link or find a broken link, please email us:<br> 
<a href="mailto:energy@ecologyaction.ca">energy@ecologyaction.ca</a></h5>

</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>

<script type="text/javascript">
jQuery(document).ready(function() { jQuery("a.sc-modal-link").fancybox({ "hideOnContentClick": true }); });
</script>
  • <p class="black-text">Hydro power works well to BALANCE variable renewable energy like wind and solar energy.</p>

<p class="blue-text">To be fossil free by 2030 we must make<br>the most of our existing facilities<br>and prepare to import available hydro<br>power from our NEIGHBORS.</p>

<a class="sc-button sc-modal-link alignleft light" style=" width: 150px; " href="#sc-modal-window-modal15">READ MORE</a>

<div style="display: none;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div id="sc-modal-window-modal15" class="sc-modal-content entry-content content-style" style="position:relative; width:600px; height:350px;">
<h3>READ MORE: Switch The Mix</h3>

<h1>WHY 2030?</h1>

<p>The scientific consensus on climate change and global warming is that we need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to below 80% of 1990 emissions by 2050.  Because replacing transportation fuels with alternates requires clean electricity and because it is easier to change stationary energy use it's important to develop clean electricity supplies well before 2050.</p>

<p>Is there enough renewable energy? 
<p>Renewable energy resources from wind, water and sun greatly exceeds our current, wasteful, energy use. Barriers to renewable energy are primarily social and political, not technological or economic. The energy cost in a renewable energy powered world should be similar to energy costs today.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://cwec.ucdavis.edu/forum2010/proceedings2/Jacobson_CWEC2010.pdf">http://cwec.ucdavis.edu/forum2010/proceedings2/Jacobson_CWEC2010.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/Articles/I/NewYorkWWSEnPolicy.pdf">http://www.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/Articles/I/NewYorkWWSEnPolicy.pdf</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/Articles/I/susenergy2030.html">http://www.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/Articles/I/susenergy2030.html</a>
</h5>

<p>Gradual transition from out current fossil system to renewable energy can be accomplished by ramping down fossil generation as renewable energy sources are incorporated into our electricity grid.</p> 

<p>The concept of wedges (Stabilization Wedges: Solving the Climate Problem for the Next 50 Years with Current Technologies, S. Pacala1, R. Socolow2)- starting small and increasing output or effect as the technology is well described by the Princeton Environmental Instituteís Carbon Mitigation Initiative and the approach will work well in Nova Scotia (and Canada).</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.sciencemag.org/content/305/5686/968.full?ijkey=Y58LIjdWjMPsw&keytype=ref&siteid=sci">http://www.sciencemag.org/content/305/5686/968.full?ijkey=Y58LIjdWjMPsw&keytype=ref&siteid=sci</a><br>
b: <a href="http://cmi.princeton.edu/wedges/">http://cmi.princeton.edu/wedges/</a>
</h5>

<p>Between now and 2030, the Nova Scotia economy will continue to grow. Traditionally, economic growth implies increased energy use, but in the last several decades, economic growth has been achieved with relatively no increase in overall energy use.  Energy use per unit of economic output has declined from  0.4 to .25 since 1971. Moreover, Canada ranks second last in energy efficiency (behind Brazil and ahead of Russia) in a 2012 study by the American Council for an energy efficient economy (ACEEE), so there is lots of room to improve.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.conferenceboard.ca/hcp/details/environment/energy-intensity.aspx">http://www.conferenceboard.ca/hcp/details/environment/energy-intensity.aspx</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.aceee.org/portal/national-policy/international-scorecard">http://www.aceee.org/portal/national-policy/international-scorecard</a>
</h5>


<p>For these reasons, the first and most important "Energy Wedge" is to use efficiency to reduce Nova Scotias annual electricity use from over 10,000 Gigawatt-hours to 8000 Gigawatt-hours while supporting ongoing economic growth.</p>  


<h1>SOLAR</h1>

<p>Solar photovoltaic panels prices continue to decline. Because they can be located on existing buildings to make double use of land already claimed for human use, they represent a win win for society and the environment: a cost becomes a source of income.</p>

<p>The 3400 acre Burnside Industrial Park has enough area to collect over 400 Gigwatt-hours of electricity each year. That's 5% of projected 2030 annual use. Even allowing for restricted use on rooftops alone, the park could provide 2-3% of Nova Scotia's annual electricity use. The advantage of coupling low rise industrial buildings and solar power is that daily electricity use, especially in the summer, peaks mid day when solar energy is the strongest and wind energy is often low. Local distribution level PV generation can counter peak demands from refrigeration and air conditioning that strain our summer time grids. While winter output is lower, well insulated buildings and greater wintertime wind output can help balance these effects.</p> 

<p>With an average daily solar intensity of 3.3 to 4.2 kwHr/m2, Nova Scotians can generate significant energy from the sun. A rooftop array on a 1500 square foot home would provide over 30 kilowatt hours per day, well above the use for many homes. Your local Solar Nova Scotia member can help you decide if solar energy is for you.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://pv.nrcan.gc.ca/index.php?lang=e">http://pv.nrcan.gc.ca/index.php?lang=e</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.solarns.ca/">http://www.solarns.ca/</a>
</h5>


<h5>Coming soon - solar PV report for Nova Scotia</h5>


<h1>WIND</h1>

<p>Wind energy is the most abundant accessible large scale renewable resource in Nova Scotia. The wind resource itself is large enough to power the province many times over but economic use of the resource must be undertaken carefully.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/EM/Wind/NS-Wind-Integration-Study-FINAL.pdf">http://www.gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/EM/Wind/NS-Wind-Integration-Study-FINAL.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.emeranl.com/site/media/emeranl/App%206.02%20NSPI%20Wind%20Integration%20Challenges%20Whi
tepaper.pdf">http://www.emeranl.com/site/media/emeranl/App%206.02%20NSPI%20Wind%20Integration%20Challenges%20Whi
tepaper.pdf</a>
</h5>

<p>Wind farm development must be undertaken with care because while our ecosystem and society benefit from renewable energy, each wind farm poses a disruption to the community where it is located. Here, risks, however small, fall upon the local ecosystem and residents. Policy for and development of wind farms must be acceptable to the local community.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/consult/_2013/wind_turbine-eoliennes/research_recherche-eng.php">http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/consult/_2013/wind_turbine-eoliennes/research_recherche-eng.php</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.ieawind.org/index_page_postings/RP/RP%2014%20Social_Acceptance_FINAL.pdf">http://www.ieawind.org/index_page_postings/RP/RP%2014%20Social_Acceptance_FINAL.pdf</a>
</h5>

<p>Stress, perception and expectations are intertwined psychological processes that have long helped individuals react to potentially threatening circumstances.  Unfortunately, these same processes can establish psychological expectations that alone lead to health complaints. For these reasons, all stakeholders must proceed openly and fairly and be very careful to listen and understand one and another.</p>   

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/2013-07740-001/">http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/2013-07740-001/</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.canwea.ca/">http://www.canwea.ca/</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/consult/_2013/wind_turbine-eoliennes/research_recherche-eng.php">http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/consult/_2013/wind_turbine-eoliennes/research_recherche-eng.php</a>
</h5>

<h1>HYDRO</h1>

<p>Hydroelectric generation is one of the oldest methods of generating renewable energy.  At a large scale it is disruptive to it's host watershed and at a small scale, it's potential is limited.  Within Nova Scotia there is very little potential for new hydro power generation and existing infrastructure continues to impact watershed ecosystems.</p> 

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.electricity.ca/media/Electricity101/Electricity101.pdf">http://www.electricity.ca/media/Electricity101/Electricity101.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://nsrenewables.ca/hydroelectricity-nova-scotia">http://nsrenewables.ca/hydroelectricity-nova-scotia</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.dal.ca/content/dam/dalhousie/pdf/science/environmental-science-program/Honours%20Theses/
Gillian_Fielding.pdf">http://www.dal.ca/content/dam/dalhousie/pdf/science/environmental-science-program/Honours%20Theses/
Gillian_Fielding.pdf</a>
</h5>

<p>Likewise, climate change threatens planet wide disruption of every watershed. It will be an ongoing challenge to fairly balance local disruption against global benefit.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</p>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.davidsuzuki.org/issues/climate-change/science/impacts/species-and-ecosystems/">http://www.davidsuzuki.org/issues/climate-change/science/impacts/species-and-ecosystems/</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/impacts-adaptation/ecosystems.html">http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/impacts-adaptation/ecosystems.html</a><br>
c: <a href="http://collectionscanada.gc.ca/webarchives2/20130322143115/http:/nrtee-trnee.ca/climate/climate-pro
sperity/the-economic-impacts-of-climate-change-for-canada/paying-the-price">http://collectionscanada.gc.ca/webarchives2/20130322143115/http:/nrtee-trnee.ca/climate/climate-pro
sperity/the-economic-impacts-of-climate-change-for-canada/paying-the-price</a>
</h5>

<p>Hydropower provides low cost electricity to several provinces within in Canada. It is the main reason that electricity rates remain low within British Columbia, Manitoba and Quebec where in addition to inexpensive electricity, these provinces derive significant income from sales to the United States. Improved east-west electricity transmission is required to extend these benefits to neighboring provinces. East-west generation and transmission development further enhances daily load balancing by extending the reach of existing hydro generation, variable wind generation and load following schedules.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://www.cdhowe.org/pdf/commentary_306.pdf">http://www.cdhowe.org/pdf/commentary_306.pdf</a></h5>

<p>Of the over 400 megawatts of capacity with Nova Scotia, much capacity is seasonally restricted or constrained to operate at full capacity for short periods of time.  As such, hydro electricity's principal benefit is that it can be used to help balance hourly demand against variable renewable generation.</p>  

<h1>TIDAL</h1>

<p>Tidal development continues within Nova Scotia. The strength of the tidal resource is both a challenge and an opportunity.  As the potential threats and advantages of this technology are explored, we will be able to judge it's ability to help Nova Scotia become Fossil Free.</p>

<h1>BIOMASS</h1>

<p>The most sustainable source of biomass is from agricultural and industrial waste. Typically, this material forms a waste stream within a farm or process that takes both time and money to be safely disposed of. Animal waste, when converted to biogas, these materials provide backup power for the facility, serve as a reservoir of fuel to help balance daily electricity demand, backup variable renewable electricity supply and further support local economies.</p>

<p>Likewise, wood chips, sawdust or possibly grass or wood fibre from marginal cropland can be used to provide heat and electricity through direct heat, co-generation or gasification systems. Within these facilities, the ability adjust output between heat and electricity again offers the potential to support daily demand and variable wind generation output.</p>  

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://www.nrel.gov/docs/gen/fy09/42857.pdfHto">http://www.nrel.gov/docs/gen/fy09/42857.pdfHto</a></h5>

<p>The best place for forest biomass is to remain in the forest as a part of the forest ecology where it sustains continued carbon absorption within the forest soil and growth. Selective harvesting of wood for value added use, especially where the removed timber effectively sequesters carbon within permanent structures, is a true renewable resource as long as forest practices are truly sustainable.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://www.safnet.org/documents/JOFSupplement.pdf">http://www.safnet.org/documents/JOFSupplement.pdf</a></h5> 

<p>Burning forest biomass is nominally carbon neutral and many Nova Scotians heat with wood so to the 
extent that this supply is sustainably harvested, the practice supports local forestry and provides a local inexpensive heating fuel. It is important to remember, though, that much of this heating demand can be eliminated through effective building insulation upgrading, sparing the homeowner precious labor and expense over the long run and extending the benefit of sustainable wood heat to a large group of Nova Scotians.</p>

<p>As a transition fuel prior to thorough home insulation, wood pellets from forest mill waste offer 
the opportunity to reduce the labor associated with wood heating.  Bulk pellet delivery and automated pellet burning appliances offer the convenience of heating oil without fossil greenhouse gas emissions and with the benefit of a secure local supply.  These systems are common in Europe and are being tested in New England and elsewhere.</p> 

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.growsmartmaine.org/pellet_boiler_incentive">http://www.growsmartmaine.org/pellet_boiler_incentive</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.maineenergysystems.com/Bulk_Pellet_Purchases.htm">http://www.maineenergysystems.com/Bulk_Pellet_Purchases.htm</a>
</h5>

<p>Most wood pellets, however, are exported to Europe, typically to be mixed with coal and burned in thermal electricity power plants. The sustainability of this use depends on the sustainability of the pellet source and the efficiency of the power plant in Europe. The economics depend heavily on the price differential between high European electricity rates, low North American timber values and low shipping costs. While it's use may be justified as a transition fuel, in the long term, electricity from forest biomass combustion will be best limited to small scale local high efficiency use.</p>

<p></p>
<h5>If you have a comment or want to recommend a link or find a broken link, please email us:<br> 
<a href="mailto:energy@ecologyaction.ca">energy@ecologyaction.ca</a></h5>

</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>

<script type="text/javascript">
jQuery(document).ready(function() { jQuery("a.sc-modal-link").fancybox({ "hideOnContentClick": true }); });
</script>
  • <p class="black-text">Building new hydro dams requires<br>CAREFUL consideration. New dams have<br>significant impacts on local ecology<br> and communities. </p>

<p class="blue-text">These impacts must be weighed against<br>widespread CLIMATE CHANGE threats.<br>Continuing to burn coal threatens every<br>ecosystem and community.</p>

<a class="sc-button sc-modal-link alignleft light" style=" width: 150px; " href="#sc-modal-window-modal16">READ MORE</a>

<div style="display: none;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div id="sc-modal-window-modal16" class="sc-modal-content entry-content content-style" style="position:relative; width:600px; height:350px;">
<h3>READ MORE: Switch The Mix</h3>

<h1>WHY 2030?</h1>

<p>The scientific consensus on climate change and global warming is that we need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to below 80% of 1990 emissions by 2050.  Because replacing transportation fuels with alternates requires clean electricity and because it is easier to change stationary energy use it's important to develop clean electricity supplies well before 2050.</p>

<p>Is there enough renewable energy? 
<p>Renewable energy resources from wind, water and sun greatly exceeds our current, wasteful, energy use. Barriers to renewable energy are primarily social and political, not technological or economic. The energy cost in a renewable energy powered world should be similar to energy costs today.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://cwec.ucdavis.edu/forum2010/proceedings2/Jacobson_CWEC2010.pdf">http://cwec.ucdavis.edu/forum2010/proceedings2/Jacobson_CWEC2010.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/Articles/I/NewYorkWWSEnPolicy.pdf">http://www.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/Articles/I/NewYorkWWSEnPolicy.pdf</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/Articles/I/susenergy2030.html">http://www.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/Articles/I/susenergy2030.html</a>
</h5>

<p>Gradual transition from out current fossil system to renewable energy can be accomplished by ramping down fossil generation as renewable energy sources are incorporated into our electricity grid.</p> 

<p>The concept of wedges (Stabilization Wedges: Solving the Climate Problem for the Next 50 Years with Current Technologies, S. Pacala1, R. Socolow2)- starting small and increasing output or effect as the technology is well described by the Princeton Environmental Instituteís Carbon Mitigation Initiative and the approach will work well in Nova Scotia (and Canada).</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.sciencemag.org/content/305/5686/968.full?ijkey=Y58LIjdWjMPsw&keytype=ref&siteid=sci">http://www.sciencemag.org/content/305/5686/968.full?ijkey=Y58LIjdWjMPsw&keytype=ref&siteid=sci</a><br>
b: <a href="http://cmi.princeton.edu/wedges/">http://cmi.princeton.edu/wedges/</a>
</h5>

<p>Between now and 2030, the Nova Scotia economy will continue to grow. Traditionally, economic growth implies increased energy use, but in the last several decades, economic growth has been achieved with relatively no increase in overall energy use.  Energy use per unit of economic output has declined from  0.4 to .25 since 1971. Moreover, Canada ranks second last in energy efficiency (behind Brazil and ahead of Russia) in a 2012 study by the American Council for an energy efficient economy (ACEEE), so there is lots of room to improve.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.conferenceboard.ca/hcp/details/environment/energy-intensity.aspx">http://www.conferenceboard.ca/hcp/details/environment/energy-intensity.aspx</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.aceee.org/portal/national-policy/international-scorecard">http://www.aceee.org/portal/national-policy/international-scorecard</a>
</h5>


<p>For these reasons, the first and most important "Energy Wedge" is to use efficiency to reduce Nova Scotias annual electricity use from over 10,000 Gigawatt-hours to 8000 Gigawatt-hours while supporting ongoing economic growth.</p>  


<h1>SOLAR</h1>

<p>Solar photovoltaic panels prices continue to decline. Because they can be located on existing buildings to make double use of land already claimed for human use, they represent a win win for society and the environment: a cost becomes a source of income.</p>

<p>The 3400 acre Burnside Industrial Park has enough area to collect over 400 Gigwatt-hours of electricity each year. That's 5% of projected 2030 annual use. Even allowing for restricted use on rooftops alone, the park could provide 2-3% of Nova Scotia's annual electricity use. The advantage of coupling low rise industrial buildings and solar power is that daily electricity use, especially in the summer, peaks mid day when solar energy is the strongest and wind energy is often low. Local distribution level PV generation can counter peak demands from refrigeration and air conditioning that strain our summer time grids. While winter output is lower, well insulated buildings and greater wintertime wind output can help balance these effects.</p> 

<p>With an average daily solar intensity of 3.3 to 4.2 kwHr/m2, Nova Scotians can generate significant energy from the sun. A rooftop array on a 1500 square foot home would provide over 30 kilowatt hours per day, well above the use for many homes. Your local Solar Nova Scotia member can help you decide if solar energy is for you.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://pv.nrcan.gc.ca/index.php?lang=e">http://pv.nrcan.gc.ca/index.php?lang=e</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.solarns.ca/">http://www.solarns.ca/</a>
</h5>


<h5>Coming soon - solar PV report for Nova Scotia</h5>


<h1>WIND</h1>

<p>Wind energy is the most abundant accessible large scale renewable resource in Nova Scotia. The wind resource itself is large enough to power the province many times over but economic use of the resource must be undertaken carefully.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/EM/Wind/NS-Wind-Integration-Study-FINAL.pdf">http://www.gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/EM/Wind/NS-Wind-Integration-Study-FINAL.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.emeranl.com/site/media/emeranl/App%206.02%20NSPI%20Wind%20Integration%20Challenges%20Whi
tepaper.pdf">http://www.emeranl.com/site/media/emeranl/App%206.02%20NSPI%20Wind%20Integration%20Challenges%20Whi
tepaper.pdf</a>
</h5>

<p>Wind farm development must be undertaken with care because while our ecosystem and society benefit from renewable energy, each wind farm poses a disruption to the community where it is located. Here, risks, however small, fall upon the local ecosystem and residents. Policy for and development of wind farms must be acceptable to the local community.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/consult/_2013/wind_turbine-eoliennes/research_recherche-eng.php">http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/consult/_2013/wind_turbine-eoliennes/research_recherche-eng.php</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.ieawind.org/index_page_postings/RP/RP%2014%20Social_Acceptance_FINAL.pdf">http://www.ieawind.org/index_page_postings/RP/RP%2014%20Social_Acceptance_FINAL.pdf</a>
</h5>

<p>Stress, perception and expectations are intertwined psychological processes that have long helped individuals react to potentially threatening circumstances.  Unfortunately, these same processes can establish psychological expectations that alone lead to health complaints. For these reasons, all stakeholders must proceed openly and fairly and be very careful to listen and understand one and another.</p>   

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/2013-07740-001/">http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/2013-07740-001/</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.canwea.ca/">http://www.canwea.ca/</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/consult/_2013/wind_turbine-eoliennes/research_recherche-eng.php">http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/consult/_2013/wind_turbine-eoliennes/research_recherche-eng.php</a>
</h5>

<h1>HYDRO</h1>

<p>Hydroelectric generation is one of the oldest methods of generating renewable energy.  At a large scale it is disruptive to it's host watershed and at a small scale, it's potential is limited.  Within Nova Scotia there is very little potential for new hydro power generation and existing infrastructure continues to impact watershed ecosystems.</p> 

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.electricity.ca/media/Electricity101/Electricity101.pdf">http://www.electricity.ca/media/Electricity101/Electricity101.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://nsrenewables.ca/hydroelectricity-nova-scotia">http://nsrenewables.ca/hydroelectricity-nova-scotia</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.dal.ca/content/dam/dalhousie/pdf/science/environmental-science-program/Honours%20Theses/
Gillian_Fielding.pdf">http://www.dal.ca/content/dam/dalhousie/pdf/science/environmental-science-program/Honours%20Theses/
Gillian_Fielding.pdf</a>
</h5>

<p>Likewise, climate change threatens planet wide disruption of every watershed. It will be an ongoing challenge to fairly balance local disruption against global benefit.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</p>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.davidsuzuki.org/issues/climate-change/science/impacts/species-and-ecosystems/">http://www.davidsuzuki.org/issues/climate-change/science/impacts/species-and-ecosystems/</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/impacts-adaptation/ecosystems.html">http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/impacts-adaptation/ecosystems.html</a><br>
c: <a href="http://collectionscanada.gc.ca/webarchives2/20130322143115/http:/nrtee-trnee.ca/climate/climate-pro
sperity/the-economic-impacts-of-climate-change-for-canada/paying-the-price">http://collectionscanada.gc.ca/webarchives2/20130322143115/http:/nrtee-trnee.ca/climate/climate-pro
sperity/the-economic-impacts-of-climate-change-for-canada/paying-the-price</a>
</h5>

<p>Hydropower provides low cost electricity to several provinces within in Canada. It is the main reason that electricity rates remain low within British Columbia, Manitoba and Quebec where in addition to inexpensive electricity, these provinces derive significant income from sales to the United States. Improved east-west electricity transmission is required to extend these benefits to neighboring provinces. East-west generation and transmission development further enhances daily load balancing by extending the reach of existing hydro generation, variable wind generation and load following schedules.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://www.cdhowe.org/pdf/commentary_306.pdf">http://www.cdhowe.org/pdf/commentary_306.pdf</a></h5>

<p>Of the over 400 megawatts of capacity with Nova Scotia, much capacity is seasonally restricted or constrained to operate at full capacity for short periods of time.  As such, hydro electricity's principal benefit is that it can be used to help balance hourly demand against variable renewable generation.</p>  

<h1>TIDAL</h1>

<p>Tidal development continues within Nova Scotia. The strength of the tidal resource is both a challenge and an opportunity.  As the potential threats and advantages of this technology are explored, we will be able to judge it's ability to help Nova Scotia become Fossil Free.</p>

<h1>BIOMASS</h1>

<p>The most sustainable source of biomass is from agricultural and industrial waste. Typically, this material forms a waste stream within a farm or process that takes both time and money to be safely disposed of. Animal waste, when converted to biogas, these materials provide backup power for the facility, serve as a reservoir of fuel to help balance daily electricity demand, backup variable renewable electricity supply and further support local economies.</p>

<p>Likewise, wood chips, sawdust or possibly grass or wood fibre from marginal cropland can be used to provide heat and electricity through direct heat, co-generation or gasification systems. Within these facilities, the ability adjust output between heat and electricity again offers the potential to support daily demand and variable wind generation output.</p>  

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://www.nrel.gov/docs/gen/fy09/42857.pdfHto">http://www.nrel.gov/docs/gen/fy09/42857.pdfHto</a></h5>

<p>The best place for forest biomass is to remain in the forest as a part of the forest ecology where it sustains continued carbon absorption within the forest soil and growth. Selective harvesting of wood for value added use, especially where the removed timber effectively sequesters carbon within permanent structures, is a true renewable resource as long as forest practices are truly sustainable.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://www.safnet.org/documents/JOFSupplement.pdf">http://www.safnet.org/documents/JOFSupplement.pdf</a></h5> 

<p>Burning forest biomass is nominally carbon neutral and many Nova Scotians heat with wood so to the 
extent that this supply is sustainably harvested, the practice supports local forestry and provides a local inexpensive heating fuel. It is important to remember, though, that much of this heating demand can be eliminated through effective building insulation upgrading, sparing the homeowner precious labor and expense over the long run and extending the benefit of sustainable wood heat to a large group of Nova Scotians.</p>

<p>As a transition fuel prior to thorough home insulation, wood pellets from forest mill waste offer 
the opportunity to reduce the labor associated with wood heating.  Bulk pellet delivery and automated pellet burning appliances offer the convenience of heating oil without fossil greenhouse gas emissions and with the benefit of a secure local supply.  These systems are common in Europe and are being tested in New England and elsewhere.</p> 

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.growsmartmaine.org/pellet_boiler_incentive">http://www.growsmartmaine.org/pellet_boiler_incentive</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.maineenergysystems.com/Bulk_Pellet_Purchases.htm">http://www.maineenergysystems.com/Bulk_Pellet_Purchases.htm</a>
</h5>

<p>Most wood pellets, however, are exported to Europe, typically to be mixed with coal and burned in thermal electricity power plants. The sustainability of this use depends on the sustainability of the pellet source and the efficiency of the power plant in Europe. The economics depend heavily on the price differential between high European electricity rates, low North American timber values and low shipping costs. While it's use may be justified as a transition fuel, in the long term, electricity from forest biomass combustion will be best limited to small scale local high efficiency use.</p>

<p></p>
<h5>If you have a comment or want to recommend a link or find a broken link, please email us:<br> 
<a href="mailto:energy@ecologyaction.ca">energy@ecologyaction.ca</a></h5>

</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>

<script type="text/javascript">
jQuery(document).ready(function() { jQuery("a.sc-modal-link").fancybox({ "hideOnContentClick": true }); });
</script>
  • <p class="black-text">Experiments with TIDAL and wave energy<br>may one day become reliable sources<br>of renewable energy.</p>

<p class="blue-text">We can be fossil free today using<br>EXISTING technology and should not wait<br>for tidal or other new sources. New<br>sources can be adapted as they mature. </p>

<a class="sc-button sc-modal-link alignleft light" style=" width: 150px; " href="#sc-modal-window-modal17">READ MORE</a>

<div style="display: none;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div id="sc-modal-window-modal17" class="sc-modal-content entry-content content-style" style="position:relative; width:600px; height:350px;">
<h3>READ MORE: Switch The Mix</h3>

<h1>WHY 2030?</h1>

<p>The scientific consensus on climate change and global warming is that we need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to below 80% of 1990 emissions by 2050.  Because replacing transportation fuels with alternates requires clean electricity and because it is easier to change stationary energy use it's important to develop clean electricity supplies well before 2050.</p>

<p>Is there enough renewable energy? 
<p>Renewable energy resources from wind, water and sun greatly exceeds our current, wasteful, energy use. Barriers to renewable energy are primarily social and political, not technological or economic. The energy cost in a renewable energy powered world should be similar to energy costs today.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://cwec.ucdavis.edu/forum2010/proceedings2/Jacobson_CWEC2010.pdf">http://cwec.ucdavis.edu/forum2010/proceedings2/Jacobson_CWEC2010.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/Articles/I/NewYorkWWSEnPolicy.pdf">http://www.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/Articles/I/NewYorkWWSEnPolicy.pdf</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/Articles/I/susenergy2030.html">http://www.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/Articles/I/susenergy2030.html</a>
</h5>

<p>Gradual transition from out current fossil system to renewable energy can be accomplished by ramping down fossil generation as renewable energy sources are incorporated into our electricity grid.</p> 

<p>The concept of wedges (Stabilization Wedges: Solving the Climate Problem for the Next 50 Years with Current Technologies, S. Pacala1, R. Socolow2)- starting small and increasing output or effect as the technology is well described by the Princeton Environmental Instituteís Carbon Mitigation Initiative and the approach will work well in Nova Scotia (and Canada).</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.sciencemag.org/content/305/5686/968.full?ijkey=Y58LIjdWjMPsw&keytype=ref&siteid=sci">http://www.sciencemag.org/content/305/5686/968.full?ijkey=Y58LIjdWjMPsw&keytype=ref&siteid=sci</a><br>
b: <a href="http://cmi.princeton.edu/wedges/">http://cmi.princeton.edu/wedges/</a>
</h5>

<p>Between now and 2030, the Nova Scotia economy will continue to grow. Traditionally, economic growth implies increased energy use, but in the last several decades, economic growth has been achieved with relatively no increase in overall energy use.  Energy use per unit of economic output has declined from  0.4 to .25 since 1971. Moreover, Canada ranks second last in energy efficiency (behind Brazil and ahead of Russia) in a 2012 study by the American Council for an energy efficient economy (ACEEE), so there is lots of room to improve.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.conferenceboard.ca/hcp/details/environment/energy-intensity.aspx">http://www.conferenceboard.ca/hcp/details/environment/energy-intensity.aspx</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.aceee.org/portal/national-policy/international-scorecard">http://www.aceee.org/portal/national-policy/international-scorecard</a>
</h5>


<p>For these reasons, the first and most important "Energy Wedge" is to use efficiency to reduce Nova Scotias annual electricity use from over 10,000 Gigawatt-hours to 8000 Gigawatt-hours while supporting ongoing economic growth.</p>  


<h1>SOLAR</h1>

<p>Solar photovoltaic panels prices continue to decline. Because they can be located on existing buildings to make double use of land already claimed for human use, they represent a win win for society and the environment: a cost becomes a source of income.</p>

<p>The 3400 acre Burnside Industrial Park has enough area to collect over 400 Gigwatt-hours of electricity each year. That's 5% of projected 2030 annual use. Even allowing for restricted use on rooftops alone, the park could provide 2-3% of Nova Scotia's annual electricity use. The advantage of coupling low rise industrial buildings and solar power is that daily electricity use, especially in the summer, peaks mid day when solar energy is the strongest and wind energy is often low. Local distribution level PV generation can counter peak demands from refrigeration and air conditioning that strain our summer time grids. While winter output is lower, well insulated buildings and greater wintertime wind output can help balance these effects.</p> 

<p>With an average daily solar intensity of 3.3 to 4.2 kwHr/m2, Nova Scotians can generate significant energy from the sun. A rooftop array on a 1500 square foot home would provide over 30 kilowatt hours per day, well above the use for many homes. Your local Solar Nova Scotia member can help you decide if solar energy is for you.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://pv.nrcan.gc.ca/index.php?lang=e">http://pv.nrcan.gc.ca/index.php?lang=e</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.solarns.ca/">http://www.solarns.ca/</a>
</h5>


<h5>Coming soon - solar PV report for Nova Scotia</h5>


<h1>WIND</h1>

<p>Wind energy is the most abundant accessible large scale renewable resource in Nova Scotia. The wind resource itself is large enough to power the province many times over but economic use of the resource must be undertaken carefully.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/EM/Wind/NS-Wind-Integration-Study-FINAL.pdf">http://www.gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/EM/Wind/NS-Wind-Integration-Study-FINAL.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.emeranl.com/site/media/emeranl/App%206.02%20NSPI%20Wind%20Integration%20Challenges%20Whi
tepaper.pdf">http://www.emeranl.com/site/media/emeranl/App%206.02%20NSPI%20Wind%20Integration%20Challenges%20Whi
tepaper.pdf</a>
</h5>

<p>Wind farm development must be undertaken with care because while our ecosystem and society benefit from renewable energy, each wind farm poses a disruption to the community where it is located. Here, risks, however small, fall upon the local ecosystem and residents. Policy for and development of wind farms must be acceptable to the local community.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/consult/_2013/wind_turbine-eoliennes/research_recherche-eng.php">http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/consult/_2013/wind_turbine-eoliennes/research_recherche-eng.php</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.ieawind.org/index_page_postings/RP/RP%2014%20Social_Acceptance_FINAL.pdf">http://www.ieawind.org/index_page_postings/RP/RP%2014%20Social_Acceptance_FINAL.pdf</a>
</h5>

<p>Stress, perception and expectations are intertwined psychological processes that have long helped individuals react to potentially threatening circumstances.  Unfortunately, these same processes can establish psychological expectations that alone lead to health complaints. For these reasons, all stakeholders must proceed openly and fairly and be very careful to listen and understand one and another.</p>   

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/2013-07740-001/">http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/2013-07740-001/</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.canwea.ca/">http://www.canwea.ca/</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/consult/_2013/wind_turbine-eoliennes/research_recherche-eng.php">http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/consult/_2013/wind_turbine-eoliennes/research_recherche-eng.php</a>
</h5>

<h1>HYDRO</h1>

<p>Hydroelectric generation is one of the oldest methods of generating renewable energy.  At a large scale it is disruptive to it's host watershed and at a small scale, it's potential is limited.  Within Nova Scotia there is very little potential for new hydro power generation and existing infrastructure continues to impact watershed ecosystems.</p> 

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.electricity.ca/media/Electricity101/Electricity101.pdf">http://www.electricity.ca/media/Electricity101/Electricity101.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://nsrenewables.ca/hydroelectricity-nova-scotia">http://nsrenewables.ca/hydroelectricity-nova-scotia</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.dal.ca/content/dam/dalhousie/pdf/science/environmental-science-program/Honours%20Theses/
Gillian_Fielding.pdf">http://www.dal.ca/content/dam/dalhousie/pdf/science/environmental-science-program/Honours%20Theses/
Gillian_Fielding.pdf</a>
</h5>

<p>Likewise, climate change threatens planet wide disruption of every watershed. It will be an ongoing challenge to fairly balance local disruption against global benefit.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</p>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.davidsuzuki.org/issues/climate-change/science/impacts/species-and-ecosystems/">http://www.davidsuzuki.org/issues/climate-change/science/impacts/species-and-ecosystems/</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/impacts-adaptation/ecosystems.html">http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/impacts-adaptation/ecosystems.html</a><br>
c: <a href="http://collectionscanada.gc.ca/webarchives2/20130322143115/http:/nrtee-trnee.ca/climate/climate-pro
sperity/the-economic-impacts-of-climate-change-for-canada/paying-the-price">http://collectionscanada.gc.ca/webarchives2/20130322143115/http:/nrtee-trnee.ca/climate/climate-pro
sperity/the-economic-impacts-of-climate-change-for-canada/paying-the-price</a>
</h5>

<p>Hydropower provides low cost electricity to several provinces within in Canada. It is the main reason that electricity rates remain low within British Columbia, Manitoba and Quebec where in addition to inexpensive electricity, these provinces derive significant income from sales to the United States. Improved east-west electricity transmission is required to extend these benefits to neighboring provinces. East-west generation and transmission development further enhances daily load balancing by extending the reach of existing hydro generation, variable wind generation and load following schedules.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://www.cdhowe.org/pdf/commentary_306.pdf">http://www.cdhowe.org/pdf/commentary_306.pdf</a></h5>

<p>Of the over 400 megawatts of capacity with Nova Scotia, much capacity is seasonally restricted or constrained to operate at full capacity for short periods of time.  As such, hydro electricity's principal benefit is that it can be used to help balance hourly demand against variable renewable generation.</p>  

<h1>TIDAL</h1>

<p>Tidal development continues within Nova Scotia. The strength of the tidal resource is both a challenge and an opportunity.  As the potential threats and advantages of this technology are explored, we will be able to judge it's ability to help Nova Scotia become Fossil Free.</p>

<h1>BIOMASS</h1>

<p>The most sustainable source of biomass is from agricultural and industrial waste. Typically, this material forms a waste stream within a farm or process that takes both time and money to be safely disposed of. Animal waste, when converted to biogas, these materials provide backup power for the facility, serve as a reservoir of fuel to help balance daily electricity demand, backup variable renewable electricity supply and further support local economies.</p>

<p>Likewise, wood chips, sawdust or possibly grass or wood fibre from marginal cropland can be used to provide heat and electricity through direct heat, co-generation or gasification systems. Within these facilities, the ability adjust output between heat and electricity again offers the potential to support daily demand and variable wind generation output.</p>  

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://www.nrel.gov/docs/gen/fy09/42857.pdfHto">http://www.nrel.gov/docs/gen/fy09/42857.pdfHto</a></h5>

<p>The best place for forest biomass is to remain in the forest as a part of the forest ecology where it sustains continued carbon absorption within the forest soil and growth. Selective harvesting of wood for value added use, especially where the removed timber effectively sequesters carbon within permanent structures, is a true renewable resource as long as forest practices are truly sustainable.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://www.safnet.org/documents/JOFSupplement.pdf">http://www.safnet.org/documents/JOFSupplement.pdf</a></h5> 

<p>Burning forest biomass is nominally carbon neutral and many Nova Scotians heat with wood so to the 
extent that this supply is sustainably harvested, the practice supports local forestry and provides a local inexpensive heating fuel. It is important to remember, though, that much of this heating demand can be eliminated through effective building insulation upgrading, sparing the homeowner precious labor and expense over the long run and extending the benefit of sustainable wood heat to a large group of Nova Scotians.</p>

<p>As a transition fuel prior to thorough home insulation, wood pellets from forest mill waste offer 
the opportunity to reduce the labor associated with wood heating.  Bulk pellet delivery and automated pellet burning appliances offer the convenience of heating oil without fossil greenhouse gas emissions and with the benefit of a secure local supply.  These systems are common in Europe and are being tested in New England and elsewhere.</p> 

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.growsmartmaine.org/pellet_boiler_incentive">http://www.growsmartmaine.org/pellet_boiler_incentive</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.maineenergysystems.com/Bulk_Pellet_Purchases.htm">http://www.maineenergysystems.com/Bulk_Pellet_Purchases.htm</a>
</h5>

<p>Most wood pellets, however, are exported to Europe, typically to be mixed with coal and burned in thermal electricity power plants. The sustainability of this use depends on the sustainability of the pellet source and the efficiency of the power plant in Europe. The economics depend heavily on the price differential between high European electricity rates, low North American timber values and low shipping costs. While it's use may be justified as a transition fuel, in the long term, electricity from forest biomass combustion will be best limited to small scale local high efficiency use.</p>

<p></p>
<h5>If you have a comment or want to recommend a link or find a broken link, please email us:<br> 
<a href="mailto:energy@ecologyaction.ca">energy@ecologyaction.ca</a></h5>

</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>

<script type="text/javascript">
jQuery(document).ready(function() { jQuery("a.sc-modal-link").fancybox({ "hideOnContentClick": true }); });
</script>
  • <p class="blue-text">BIOGAS from organic WASTE or fuel CROPS<br>grown on marginal land may provide fuels<br>to help generate low emitting electricity.
</p>

<p class="black-text">LOCAL systems use local WASTE,<br>keep transportation costs low<br>and bring jobs to MANY communities.</p>

<a class="sc-button sc-modal-link alignleft light" style=" width: 150px; " href="#sc-modal-window-modal18">READ MORE</a>

<div style="display: none;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div id="sc-modal-window-modal18" class="sc-modal-content entry-content content-style" style="position:relative; width:600px; height:350px;">
<h3>READ MORE: Switch The Mix</h3>

<h1>WHY 2030?</h1>

<p>The scientific consensus on climate change and global warming is that we need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to below 80% of 1990 emissions by 2050.  Because replacing transportation fuels with alternates requires clean electricity and because it is easier to change stationary energy use it's important to develop clean electricity supplies well before 2050.</p>

<p>Is there enough renewable energy? 
<p>Renewable energy resources from wind, water and sun greatly exceeds our current, wasteful, energy use. Barriers to renewable energy are primarily social and political, not technological or economic. The energy cost in a renewable energy powered world should be similar to energy costs today.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://cwec.ucdavis.edu/forum2010/proceedings2/Jacobson_CWEC2010.pdf">http://cwec.ucdavis.edu/forum2010/proceedings2/Jacobson_CWEC2010.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/Articles/I/NewYorkWWSEnPolicy.pdf">http://www.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/Articles/I/NewYorkWWSEnPolicy.pdf</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/Articles/I/susenergy2030.html">http://www.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/Articles/I/susenergy2030.html</a>
</h5>

<p>Gradual transition from out current fossil system to renewable energy can be accomplished by ramping down fossil generation as renewable energy sources are incorporated into our electricity grid.</p> 

<p>The concept of wedges (Stabilization Wedges: Solving the Climate Problem for the Next 50 Years with Current Technologies, S. Pacala1, R. Socolow2)- starting small and increasing output or effect as the technology is well described by the Princeton Environmental Instituteís Carbon Mitigation Initiative and the approach will work well in Nova Scotia (and Canada).</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.sciencemag.org/content/305/5686/968.full?ijkey=Y58LIjdWjMPsw&keytype=ref&siteid=sci">http://www.sciencemag.org/content/305/5686/968.full?ijkey=Y58LIjdWjMPsw&keytype=ref&siteid=sci</a><br>
b: <a href="http://cmi.princeton.edu/wedges/">http://cmi.princeton.edu/wedges/</a>
</h5>

<p>Between now and 2030, the Nova Scotia economy will continue to grow. Traditionally, economic growth implies increased energy use, but in the last several decades, economic growth has been achieved with relatively no increase in overall energy use.  Energy use per unit of economic output has declined from  0.4 to .25 since 1971. Moreover, Canada ranks second last in energy efficiency (behind Brazil and ahead of Russia) in a 2012 study by the American Council for an energy efficient economy (ACEEE), so there is lots of room to improve.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.conferenceboard.ca/hcp/details/environment/energy-intensity.aspx">http://www.conferenceboard.ca/hcp/details/environment/energy-intensity.aspx</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.aceee.org/portal/national-policy/international-scorecard">http://www.aceee.org/portal/national-policy/international-scorecard</a>
</h5>


<p>For these reasons, the first and most important "Energy Wedge" is to use efficiency to reduce Nova Scotias annual electricity use from over 10,000 Gigawatt-hours to 8000 Gigawatt-hours while supporting ongoing economic growth.</p>  


<h1>SOLAR</h1>

<p>Solar photovoltaic panels prices continue to decline. Because they can be located on existing buildings to make double use of land already claimed for human use, they represent a win win for society and the environment: a cost becomes a source of income.</p>

<p>The 3400 acre Burnside Industrial Park has enough area to collect over 400 Gigwatt-hours of electricity each year. That's 5% of projected 2030 annual use. Even allowing for restricted use on rooftops alone, the park could provide 2-3% of Nova Scotia's annual electricity use. The advantage of coupling low rise industrial buildings and solar power is that daily electricity use, especially in the summer, peaks mid day when solar energy is the strongest and wind energy is often low. Local distribution level PV generation can counter peak demands from refrigeration and air conditioning that strain our summer time grids. While winter output is lower, well insulated buildings and greater wintertime wind output can help balance these effects.</p> 

<p>With an average daily solar intensity of 3.3 to 4.2 kwHr/m2, Nova Scotians can generate significant energy from the sun. A rooftop array on a 1500 square foot home would provide over 30 kilowatt hours per day, well above the use for many homes. Your local Solar Nova Scotia member can help you decide if solar energy is for you.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://pv.nrcan.gc.ca/index.php?lang=e">http://pv.nrcan.gc.ca/index.php?lang=e</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.solarns.ca/">http://www.solarns.ca/</a>
</h5>


<h5>Coming soon - solar PV report for Nova Scotia</h5>


<h1>WIND</h1>

<p>Wind energy is the most abundant accessible large scale renewable resource in Nova Scotia. The wind resource itself is large enough to power the province many times over but economic use of the resource must be undertaken carefully.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/EM/Wind/NS-Wind-Integration-Study-FINAL.pdf">http://www.gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/EM/Wind/NS-Wind-Integration-Study-FINAL.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.emeranl.com/site/media/emeranl/App%206.02%20NSPI%20Wind%20Integration%20Challenges%20Whi
tepaper.pdf">http://www.emeranl.com/site/media/emeranl/App%206.02%20NSPI%20Wind%20Integration%20Challenges%20Whi
tepaper.pdf</a>
</h5>

<p>Wind farm development must be undertaken with care because while our ecosystem and society benefit from renewable energy, each wind farm poses a disruption to the community where it is located. Here, risks, however small, fall upon the local ecosystem and residents. Policy for and development of wind farms must be acceptable to the local community.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/consult/_2013/wind_turbine-eoliennes/research_recherche-eng.php">http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/consult/_2013/wind_turbine-eoliennes/research_recherche-eng.php</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.ieawind.org/index_page_postings/RP/RP%2014%20Social_Acceptance_FINAL.pdf">http://www.ieawind.org/index_page_postings/RP/RP%2014%20Social_Acceptance_FINAL.pdf</a>
</h5>

<p>Stress, perception and expectations are intertwined psychological processes that have long helped individuals react to potentially threatening circumstances.  Unfortunately, these same processes can establish psychological expectations that alone lead to health complaints. For these reasons, all stakeholders must proceed openly and fairly and be very careful to listen and understand one and another.</p>   

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/2013-07740-001/">http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/2013-07740-001/</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.canwea.ca/">http://www.canwea.ca/</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/consult/_2013/wind_turbine-eoliennes/research_recherche-eng.php">http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/consult/_2013/wind_turbine-eoliennes/research_recherche-eng.php</a>
</h5>

<h1>HYDRO</h1>

<p>Hydroelectric generation is one of the oldest methods of generating renewable energy.  At a large scale it is disruptive to it's host watershed and at a small scale, it's potential is limited.  Within Nova Scotia there is very little potential for new hydro power generation and existing infrastructure continues to impact watershed ecosystems.</p> 

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.electricity.ca/media/Electricity101/Electricity101.pdf">http://www.electricity.ca/media/Electricity101/Electricity101.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://nsrenewables.ca/hydroelectricity-nova-scotia">http://nsrenewables.ca/hydroelectricity-nova-scotia</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.dal.ca/content/dam/dalhousie/pdf/science/environmental-science-program/Honours%20Theses/
Gillian_Fielding.pdf">http://www.dal.ca/content/dam/dalhousie/pdf/science/environmental-science-program/Honours%20Theses/
Gillian_Fielding.pdf</a>
</h5>

<p>Likewise, climate change threatens planet wide disruption of every watershed. It will be an ongoing challenge to fairly balance local disruption against global benefit.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</p>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.davidsuzuki.org/issues/climate-change/science/impacts/species-and-ecosystems/">http://www.davidsuzuki.org/issues/climate-change/science/impacts/species-and-ecosystems/</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/impacts-adaptation/ecosystems.html">http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/impacts-adaptation/ecosystems.html</a><br>
c: <a href="http://collectionscanada.gc.ca/webarchives2/20130322143115/http:/nrtee-trnee.ca/climate/climate-pro
sperity/the-economic-impacts-of-climate-change-for-canada/paying-the-price">http://collectionscanada.gc.ca/webarchives2/20130322143115/http:/nrtee-trnee.ca/climate/climate-pro
sperity/the-economic-impacts-of-climate-change-for-canada/paying-the-price</a>
</h5>

<p>Hydropower provides low cost electricity to several provinces within in Canada. It is the main reason that electricity rates remain low within British Columbia, Manitoba and Quebec where in addition to inexpensive electricity, these provinces derive significant income from sales to the United States. Improved east-west electricity transmission is required to extend these benefits to neighboring provinces. East-west generation and transmission development further enhances daily load balancing by extending the reach of existing hydro generation, variable wind generation and load following schedules.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://www.cdhowe.org/pdf/commentary_306.pdf">http://www.cdhowe.org/pdf/commentary_306.pdf</a></h5>

<p>Of the over 400 megawatts of capacity with Nova Scotia, much capacity is seasonally restricted or constrained to operate at full capacity for short periods of time.  As such, hydro electricity's principal benefit is that it can be used to help balance hourly demand against variable renewable generation.</p>  

<h1>TIDAL</h1>

<p>Tidal development continues within Nova Scotia. The strength of the tidal resource is both a challenge and an opportunity.  As the potential threats and advantages of this technology are explored, we will be able to judge it's ability to help Nova Scotia become Fossil Free.</p>

<h1>BIOMASS</h1>

<p>The most sustainable source of biomass is from agricultural and industrial waste. Typically, this material forms a waste stream within a farm or process that takes both time and money to be safely disposed of. Animal waste, when converted to biogas, these materials provide backup power for the facility, serve as a reservoir of fuel to help balance daily electricity demand, backup variable renewable electricity supply and further support local economies.</p>

<p>Likewise, wood chips, sawdust or possibly grass or wood fibre from marginal cropland can be used to provide heat and electricity through direct heat, co-generation or gasification systems. Within these facilities, the ability adjust output between heat and electricity again offers the potential to support daily demand and variable wind generation output.</p>  

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://www.nrel.gov/docs/gen/fy09/42857.pdfHto">http://www.nrel.gov/docs/gen/fy09/42857.pdfHto</a></h5>

<p>The best place for forest biomass is to remain in the forest as a part of the forest ecology where it sustains continued carbon absorption within the forest soil and growth. Selective harvesting of wood for value added use, especially where the removed timber effectively sequesters carbon within permanent structures, is a true renewable resource as long as forest practices are truly sustainable.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://www.safnet.org/documents/JOFSupplement.pdf">http://www.safnet.org/documents/JOFSupplement.pdf</a></h5> 

<p>Burning forest biomass is nominally carbon neutral and many Nova Scotians heat with wood so to the 
extent that this supply is sustainably harvested, the practice supports local forestry and provides a local inexpensive heating fuel. It is important to remember, though, that much of this heating demand can be eliminated through effective building insulation upgrading, sparing the homeowner precious labor and expense over the long run and extending the benefit of sustainable wood heat to a large group of Nova Scotians.</p>

<p>As a transition fuel prior to thorough home insulation, wood pellets from forest mill waste offer 
the opportunity to reduce the labor associated with wood heating.  Bulk pellet delivery and automated pellet burning appliances offer the convenience of heating oil without fossil greenhouse gas emissions and with the benefit of a secure local supply.  These systems are common in Europe and are being tested in New England and elsewhere.</p> 

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.growsmartmaine.org/pellet_boiler_incentive">http://www.growsmartmaine.org/pellet_boiler_incentive</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.maineenergysystems.com/Bulk_Pellet_Purchases.htm">http://www.maineenergysystems.com/Bulk_Pellet_Purchases.htm</a>
</h5>

<p>Most wood pellets, however, are exported to Europe, typically to be mixed with coal and burned in thermal electricity power plants. The sustainability of this use depends on the sustainability of the pellet source and the efficiency of the power plant in Europe. The economics depend heavily on the price differential between high European electricity rates, low North American timber values and low shipping costs. While it's use may be justified as a transition fuel, in the long term, electricity from forest biomass combustion will be best limited to small scale local high efficiency use.</p>

<p></p>
<h5>If you have a comment or want to recommend a link or find a broken link, please email us:<br> 
<a href="mailto:energy@ecologyaction.ca">energy@ecologyaction.ca</a></h5>

</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>

<script type="text/javascript">
jQuery(document).ready(function() { jQuery("a.sc-modal-link").fancybox({ "hideOnContentClick": true }); });
</script>
  • <p class="black-text">Our forests are a valuable resource, so we<br>must be careful when we use wood as fuel.</p>

<p class="blue-text">It makes sense in many HOMES to<br>use wood for heat. The main source for LARGE<br>bio-energy projects should be from<br>WASTE materials.</p>

<a class="sc-button sc-modal-link alignleft light" style=" width: 150px; " href="#sc-modal-window-modal19">READ MORE</a>

<div style="display: none;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div id="sc-modal-window-modal19" class="sc-modal-content entry-content content-style" style="position:relative; width:600px; height:350px;">
<h3>READ MORE: Switch The Mix</h3>

<h1>WHY 2030?</h1>

<p>The scientific consensus on climate change and global warming is that we need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to below 80% of 1990 emissions by 2050.  Because replacing transportation fuels with alternates requires clean electricity and because it is easier to change stationary energy use it's important to develop clean electricity supplies well before 2050.</p>

<p>Is there enough renewable energy? 
<p>Renewable energy resources from wind, water and sun greatly exceeds our current, wasteful, energy use. Barriers to renewable energy are primarily social and political, not technological or economic. The energy cost in a renewable energy powered world should be similar to energy costs today.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://cwec.ucdavis.edu/forum2010/proceedings2/Jacobson_CWEC2010.pdf">http://cwec.ucdavis.edu/forum2010/proceedings2/Jacobson_CWEC2010.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/Articles/I/NewYorkWWSEnPolicy.pdf">http://www.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/Articles/I/NewYorkWWSEnPolicy.pdf</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/Articles/I/susenergy2030.html">http://www.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/Articles/I/susenergy2030.html</a>
</h5>

<p>Gradual transition from out current fossil system to renewable energy can be accomplished by ramping down fossil generation as renewable energy sources are incorporated into our electricity grid.</p> 

<p>The concept of wedges (Stabilization Wedges: Solving the Climate Problem for the Next 50 Years with Current Technologies, S. Pacala1, R. Socolow2)- starting small and increasing output or effect as the technology is well described by the Princeton Environmental Instituteís Carbon Mitigation Initiative and the approach will work well in Nova Scotia (and Canada).</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.sciencemag.org/content/305/5686/968.full?ijkey=Y58LIjdWjMPsw&keytype=ref&siteid=sci">http://www.sciencemag.org/content/305/5686/968.full?ijkey=Y58LIjdWjMPsw&keytype=ref&siteid=sci</a><br>
b: <a href="http://cmi.princeton.edu/wedges/">http://cmi.princeton.edu/wedges/</a>
</h5>

<p>Between now and 2030, the Nova Scotia economy will continue to grow. Traditionally, economic growth implies increased energy use, but in the last several decades, economic growth has been achieved with relatively no increase in overall energy use.  Energy use per unit of economic output has declined from  0.4 to .25 since 1971. Moreover, Canada ranks second last in energy efficiency (behind Brazil and ahead of Russia) in a 2012 study by the American Council for an energy efficient economy (ACEEE), so there is lots of room to improve.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.conferenceboard.ca/hcp/details/environment/energy-intensity.aspx">http://www.conferenceboard.ca/hcp/details/environment/energy-intensity.aspx</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.aceee.org/portal/national-policy/international-scorecard">http://www.aceee.org/portal/national-policy/international-scorecard</a>
</h5>


<p>For these reasons, the first and most important "Energy Wedge" is to use efficiency to reduce Nova Scotias annual electricity use from over 10,000 Gigawatt-hours to 8000 Gigawatt-hours while supporting ongoing economic growth.</p>  


<h1>SOLAR</h1>

<p>Solar photovoltaic panels prices continue to decline. Because they can be located on existing buildings to make double use of land already claimed for human use, they represent a win win for society and the environment: a cost becomes a source of income.</p>

<p>The 3400 acre Burnside Industrial Park has enough area to collect over 400 Gigwatt-hours of electricity each year. That's 5% of projected 2030 annual use. Even allowing for restricted use on rooftops alone, the park could provide 2-3% of Nova Scotia's annual electricity use. The advantage of coupling low rise industrial buildings and solar power is that daily electricity use, especially in the summer, peaks mid day when solar energy is the strongest and wind energy is often low. Local distribution level PV generation can counter peak demands from refrigeration and air conditioning that strain our summer time grids. While winter output is lower, well insulated buildings and greater wintertime wind output can help balance these effects.</p> 

<p>With an average daily solar intensity of 3.3 to 4.2 kwHr/m2, Nova Scotians can generate significant energy from the sun. A rooftop array on a 1500 square foot home would provide over 30 kilowatt hours per day, well above the use for many homes. Your local Solar Nova Scotia member can help you decide if solar energy is for you.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://pv.nrcan.gc.ca/index.php?lang=e">http://pv.nrcan.gc.ca/index.php?lang=e</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.solarns.ca/">http://www.solarns.ca/</a>
</h5>


<h5>Coming soon - solar PV report for Nova Scotia</h5>


<h1>WIND</h1>

<p>Wind energy is the most abundant accessible large scale renewable resource in Nova Scotia. The wind resource itself is large enough to power the province many times over but economic use of the resource must be undertaken carefully.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/EM/Wind/NS-Wind-Integration-Study-FINAL.pdf">http://www.gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/EM/Wind/NS-Wind-Integration-Study-FINAL.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.emeranl.com/site/media/emeranl/App%206.02%20NSPI%20Wind%20Integration%20Challenges%20Whi
tepaper.pdf">http://www.emeranl.com/site/media/emeranl/App%206.02%20NSPI%20Wind%20Integration%20Challenges%20Whi
tepaper.pdf</a>
</h5>

<p>Wind farm development must be undertaken with care because while our ecosystem and society benefit from renewable energy, each wind farm poses a disruption to the community where it is located. Here, risks, however small, fall upon the local ecosystem and residents. Policy for and development of wind farms must be acceptable to the local community.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/consult/_2013/wind_turbine-eoliennes/research_recherche-eng.php">http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/consult/_2013/wind_turbine-eoliennes/research_recherche-eng.php</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.ieawind.org/index_page_postings/RP/RP%2014%20Social_Acceptance_FINAL.pdf">http://www.ieawind.org/index_page_postings/RP/RP%2014%20Social_Acceptance_FINAL.pdf</a>
</h5>

<p>Stress, perception and expectations are intertwined psychological processes that have long helped individuals react to potentially threatening circumstances.  Unfortunately, these same processes can establish psychological expectations that alone lead to health complaints. For these reasons, all stakeholders must proceed openly and fairly and be very careful to listen and understand one and another.</p>   

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/2013-07740-001/">http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/2013-07740-001/</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.canwea.ca/">http://www.canwea.ca/</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/consult/_2013/wind_turbine-eoliennes/research_recherche-eng.php">http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/consult/_2013/wind_turbine-eoliennes/research_recherche-eng.php</a>
</h5>

<h1>HYDRO</h1>

<p>Hydroelectric generation is one of the oldest methods of generating renewable energy.  At a large scale it is disruptive to it's host watershed and at a small scale, it's potential is limited.  Within Nova Scotia there is very little potential for new hydro power generation and existing infrastructure continues to impact watershed ecosystems.</p> 

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.electricity.ca/media/Electricity101/Electricity101.pdf">http://www.electricity.ca/media/Electricity101/Electricity101.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://nsrenewables.ca/hydroelectricity-nova-scotia">http://nsrenewables.ca/hydroelectricity-nova-scotia</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.dal.ca/content/dam/dalhousie/pdf/science/environmental-science-program/Honours%20Theses/
Gillian_Fielding.pdf">http://www.dal.ca/content/dam/dalhousie/pdf/science/environmental-science-program/Honours%20Theses/
Gillian_Fielding.pdf</a>
</h5>

<p>Likewise, climate change threatens planet wide disruption of every watershed. It will be an ongoing challenge to fairly balance local disruption against global benefit.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</p>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.davidsuzuki.org/issues/climate-change/science/impacts/species-and-ecosystems/">http://www.davidsuzuki.org/issues/climate-change/science/impacts/species-and-ecosystems/</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/impacts-adaptation/ecosystems.html">http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/impacts-adaptation/ecosystems.html</a><br>
c: <a href="http://collectionscanada.gc.ca/webarchives2/20130322143115/http:/nrtee-trnee.ca/climate/climate-pro
sperity/the-economic-impacts-of-climate-change-for-canada/paying-the-price">http://collectionscanada.gc.ca/webarchives2/20130322143115/http:/nrtee-trnee.ca/climate/climate-pro
sperity/the-economic-impacts-of-climate-change-for-canada/paying-the-price</a>
</h5>

<p>Hydropower provides low cost electricity to several provinces within in Canada. It is the main reason that electricity rates remain low within British Columbia, Manitoba and Quebec where in addition to inexpensive electricity, these provinces derive significant income from sales to the United States. Improved east-west electricity transmission is required to extend these benefits to neighboring provinces. East-west generation and transmission development further enhances daily load balancing by extending the reach of existing hydro generation, variable wind generation and load following schedules.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://www.cdhowe.org/pdf/commentary_306.pdf">http://www.cdhowe.org/pdf/commentary_306.pdf</a></h5>

<p>Of the over 400 megawatts of capacity with Nova Scotia, much capacity is seasonally restricted or constrained to operate at full capacity for short periods of time.  As such, hydro electricity's principal benefit is that it can be used to help balance hourly demand against variable renewable generation.</p>  

<h1>TIDAL</h1>

<p>Tidal development continues within Nova Scotia. The strength of the tidal resource is both a challenge and an opportunity.  As the potential threats and advantages of this technology are explored, we will be able to judge it's ability to help Nova Scotia become Fossil Free.</p>

<h1>BIOMASS</h1>

<p>The most sustainable source of biomass is from agricultural and industrial waste. Typically, this material forms a waste stream within a farm or process that takes both time and money to be safely disposed of. Animal waste, when converted to biogas, these materials provide backup power for the facility, serve as a reservoir of fuel to help balance daily electricity demand, backup variable renewable electricity supply and further support local economies.</p>

<p>Likewise, wood chips, sawdust or possibly grass or wood fibre from marginal cropland can be used to provide heat and electricity through direct heat, co-generation or gasification systems. Within these facilities, the ability adjust output between heat and electricity again offers the potential to support daily demand and variable wind generation output.</p>  

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://www.nrel.gov/docs/gen/fy09/42857.pdfHto">http://www.nrel.gov/docs/gen/fy09/42857.pdfHto</a></h5>

<p>The best place for forest biomass is to remain in the forest as a part of the forest ecology where it sustains continued carbon absorption within the forest soil and growth. Selective harvesting of wood for value added use, especially where the removed timber effectively sequesters carbon within permanent structures, is a true renewable resource as long as forest practices are truly sustainable.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://www.safnet.org/documents/JOFSupplement.pdf">http://www.safnet.org/documents/JOFSupplement.pdf</a></h5> 

<p>Burning forest biomass is nominally carbon neutral and many Nova Scotians heat with wood so to the 
extent that this supply is sustainably harvested, the practice supports local forestry and provides a local inexpensive heating fuel. It is important to remember, though, that much of this heating demand can be eliminated through effective building insulation upgrading, sparing the homeowner precious labor and expense over the long run and extending the benefit of sustainable wood heat to a large group of Nova Scotians.</p>

<p>As a transition fuel prior to thorough home insulation, wood pellets from forest mill waste offer 
the opportunity to reduce the labor associated with wood heating.  Bulk pellet delivery and automated pellet burning appliances offer the convenience of heating oil without fossil greenhouse gas emissions and with the benefit of a secure local supply.  These systems are common in Europe and are being tested in New England and elsewhere.</p> 

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.growsmartmaine.org/pellet_boiler_incentive">http://www.growsmartmaine.org/pellet_boiler_incentive</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.maineenergysystems.com/Bulk_Pellet_Purchases.htm">http://www.maineenergysystems.com/Bulk_Pellet_Purchases.htm</a>
</h5>

<p>Most wood pellets, however, are exported to Europe, typically to be mixed with coal and burned in thermal electricity power plants. The sustainability of this use depends on the sustainability of the pellet source and the efficiency of the power plant in Europe. The economics depend heavily on the price differential between high European electricity rates, low North American timber values and low shipping costs. While it's use may be justified as a transition fuel, in the long term, electricity from forest biomass combustion will be best limited to small scale local high efficiency use.</p>

<p></p>
<h5>If you have a comment or want to recommend a link or find a broken link, please email us:<br> 
<a href="mailto:energy@ecologyaction.ca">energy@ecologyaction.ca</a></h5>

</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>

<script type="text/javascript">
jQuery(document).ready(function() { jQuery("a.sc-modal-link").fancybox({ "hideOnContentClick": true }); });
</script>
 

Reduce and Retire

Switch The Mix

Modernize Our Grid

Make It Happen

 
 
  • <p>Good connections make good neighbors.</p>

<p class="black-text">It’s time to MODERNIZE how we connect<br>electricity to customers. </p>

<p>Building a versatile transmission GRID will<br>collect renewable energy from throughout<br>our region and deliver it to customers<br>when they need it.</p>

<a class="sc-button sc-modal-link alignleft light" style=" width: 150px; " href="#sc-modal-window-modal20">READ MORE</a>

<div style="display: none;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div id="sc-modal-window-modal20" class="sc-modal-content entry-content content-style" style="position:relative; width:600px; height:350px;">
<h3>READ MORE: Modernize Our Grid</h3>

<h1>OUR EVOLVING GRID</h1>

<p>Our local electricity system has evolved from many small community and industrial power grids into a single province-wide electricity system. As well, our provincial grid is connected to a North American system that continues to evolve. Always a politically charged subject, our electricity grid development was shaped throughout the 20th century by the forces of modernization, industrialization and global energy price shocks. (For a good historical account, see: Power Failure?, by Richard Starr, Formac Publishing, 2011.) The 21st century will continue this process as we transition to fossil free electricity.</p>

<p>Drawing upon renewable energy will drive further changes to the system of transmission and distribution lines around the globe, including Nova Scotia. Because generation sources will be more variable, smaller and distributed over the grid, it will have to be strengthened to ensure that local grid generation and demand remain in balance.</p>

<p>The North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC), has begun to explore the implications of the coming electricity system changes. Even this cautious, business-as-usual organization concludes: </p>

<p>
• The timing of carbon reduction targets will require an unprecedented shift in North America's resource mix;<br>
• Regional solutions are needed to respond to climate change initiatives, driven by unique system characteristics<br> 
 and existing infrastructure;<br>
• The addition of new resources increases the need for transmission and energy storage and balancing reserves;<br>
• Carbon reduction from increasing demand-side management must be balanced against potential<br>
 reliability impacts;<br>
• Climate change efforts that increasingly depend on distribution system options and applications can, in aggregate, impact power system reliability. Clearly, change is in the wind for our entire electricity system.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://www.nerc.com/files/ricci_2010.pdf">http://www.nerc.com/files/ricci_2010.pdf</a></h5>


<h1>DISTRIBUTION GRID</h1>

<p>Adding many small energy sources to our distribution grid - the lines that bring electricity to buildings within our communities - will require change. Lines that were installed to deliver electricity in one direction may ultimately have to operate in both directions. New standards to maintain reliability and safety have been developed and the implications of increased local electricity production understood. For a good general discussion, see:</p>

<h5><a href="http://www.ilsr.org/political-and-technical-advantages-distributed-generation/">http://www.ilsr.org/political-and-technical-advantages-distributed-generation/</a></h5>


<p>Power utilities control the level of distribution grid generation to maintain accepted levels of reliability. As distributed generation increases, new controls and methods of maintaining a reliable power grid will permit greater levels of distributed generation. You can look at the distribution grid capacity in your Nova Scotia neighborhood here:</p>

<h5><a href="http://www.nspower.ca/en/home/environment/renewableenergy/comfit/capacity.aspx">http://www.nspower.ca/en/home/environment/renewableenergy/comfit/capacity.aspx</a></h5>


<h1>TRANSMISSION GRID</h1>

<p>The Nova Scotia transmission grid connects large generators in Cape Breton, Trenton and Halifax to large load centers in the province. These include large industrial consumers like pulp mills and large communities, in particular the urban/suburban core of Halifax Regional Municipality (HRM).</p> 

<p>As the location and quantity of power generation shifts, so will our transmission system have to change. In particular, with variable resources like wind, additional transmission capacity will be required to connect and deliver more wind energy.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/EM/Wind/NS-Wind-Integration-Study-FINAL.pdf">http://www.gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/EM/Wind/NS-Wind-Integration-Study-FINAL.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://oasis.nspower.ca/site-nsp/media/Oasis/2012%2010%20Year%20System%20Outlook%20Report%20June%2029%202012.pdf">http://oasis.nspower.ca/site-nsp/media/Oasis/2012%2010%20Year%20System%20Outlook%20Report%20June%2029%202012.pdf</a><br>
<a href="http://www.uwig.org/nbso_wind_study_project_final_summary_report_may_2007.pdf">http://www.uwig.org/nbso_wind_study_project_final_summary_report_may_2007.pdf</a>
</h5>

<h1>REGIONALIZE</h1>

<p>Variable renewable energy, especially wind energy, rises and falls on a day to day basis over the length of Nova Scotia. Over a larger area, this effect is moderated. To take best advantage of wind energy, good regional transmission connections are required to move excess wind energy to areas where renewable generation is low.</p>

<p>Over large enough areas, good transmission and wind energy development can meet the demands for reliable electricity with little fossil backup or storage to very large metropolitan areas as shown for recent studies of both the PJM (Pennsylvania, Jersey and Maryland) the New York interconnection regions.</p> 

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://green.wiwo.de/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/BudischakEtAl-2013-CostMinimizedWindSolarPJM.pdf">http://green.wiwo.de/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/BudischakEtAl-2013-CostMinimizedWindSolarPJM.pdf</a></h5>

<p>(Cory Budischak, DeAnna Sewell, Heather Thomson, Leon Mach, Dana E. Veron, Willett Kempton. Cost-minimized combinations of wind power, solar power and electrochemical storage, powering the grid up to 99.9% of the time. Journal of Power Sources, 2013; 225: 60 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.09.054)</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=how-to-power-the-world&page=2">http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=how-to-power-the-world&page=2</a></h5>

<p>Nova Scotia's transmission system benefits from connections to New Brunswick and there are significant benefits to having a connection to Newfoundland without consideration of the availability of new hydroelectric power. While development of improved transmission can be costly, the long term benefits increase with the flexibility of the system and the penetration of renewable generation.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.uwig.org/nbso_wind_study_project_final_summary_report_may_2007.pdf">http://www.uwig.org/nbso_wind_study_project_final_summary_report_may_2007.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://nsrenewables.ca/sites/default/files/aeg_transmission_modeling.pdf">http://nsrenewables.ca/sites/default/files/aeg_transmission_modeling.pdf</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.nbso.ca/Public/_private/NBSO%20Discussion%20Paper%20Final%20Pre-release%20Dec%2012,%2020.pdf">http://www.nbso.ca/Public/_private/NBSO%20Discussion%20Paper%20Final%20Pre-release%20Dec%2012,%2020.pdf</a><br>
d: <a href="http://nsrenewables.ca/sites/default/files/aeg_regional_electricity_system_operations.pdf">http://nsrenewables.ca/sites/default/files/aeg_regional_electricity_system_operations.pdf</a>
</h5>

<h1>STORAGE</h1>

<p>Storage systems for electricity offer the ability to save excess renewable generation and hold it for times when there is reduced generation or increased demand. Several technologies offer differing levels of storage capacity:</p>

<h5><a href="http://www.iec.ch/whitepaper/pdf/iecWP-energystorage-LR-en.pdf">http://www.iec.ch/whitepaper/pdf/iecWP-energystorage-LR-en.pdf</a></h5>

<p>Pumped Hydro systems move water between large reservoirs, drawing electricity when pumping water uphill and generating electricity when water is released to the lower reservoir. Many systems operate across North America. Compact underground hydro storage systems have been proposed:</p>

<h5><a href="http://www.launchpnt.com/portfolio/energy/grid-scale-electricity-storage/">http://www.launchpnt.com/portfolio/energy/grid-scale-electricity-storage/</a></h5>

<p>Compressed air energy storage, (CAES), stores compressed gas or air underground to run turbines or feed gas turbines later when extra generation is required.  Two systems have been operating for since 1978 (290 MW Huntorf plant in Germany) and 1991 (110 MW / 26 hours, McIntosh, Alabama), with several more plants under development across North America.</p>

<p>Smaller scale CAES offers significant flexibility and cost savings. These systems use established technology and innovative heat reclamation approaches to be more efficient. A system of this type, by Lightsail energy, is under consideration for a test project in Nova Scotia.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://thechronicleherald.ca/business/139745-compressed-air-may-be-solution-to-energy-storagearey">http://thechronicleherald.ca/business/139745-compressed-air-may-be-solution-to-energy-storagearey</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.lightsail.com/tech/">http://www.lightsail.com/tech/</a>
</h5>

<p>Other potential technologies include storing compressed air in underwater bladders or abandoned mines.On smaller scales, battery systems have been developed and there is much speculation that distributed battery storage will result as battery powered vehicles become more wide spread.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.texastribune.org/2010/11/07/texas-tackles-electricity-storage/">http://www.texastribune.org/2010/11/07/texas-tackles-electricity-storage/</a><br>
b: <a href="http://wind.nrel.gov/public/SeaCon/Proceedings/Copenhagen.Offshore.Wind.2005/documents/papers/PosterW.Kempton_Usingelectricvehiclesasbackupforlarge.pdf">http://wind.nrel.gov/public/SeaCon/Proceedings/Copenhagen.Offshore.Wind.2005/documents/papers/PosterW.Kempton_Usingelectricvehiclesasbackupforlarge.pdf</a>
</h5>

<h1>SMART METERING</h1>

<p>For most consumers today, electricity costs the same regardless of when they use it and simply pay a flat rate for the electricity consumed over a period of a month or two based on a simple electricity meter reading.  Smart metering concepts use meters that can communicate with the consumer and the supplier and keep track of electricity consumption over shorter periods of time.  This allows coordination of electricity supply and demand based on variable price signals and power consumption preferences established by each electricity consumer.</p>

<p>A simple type of smart metering arrangement already exists in Nova Scotia where customers with energy storage heaters are charged based on their time-of-day usage.  The heater stores heat at night when the rate is low and discharges heat during the day when electricity rates are higher. Other appliances, notably electric water heaters can operate on timers to take advantage of the similar pricing.</p>

<h5><a href="http://www.nspower.ca/en/home/residential/homeheatingproducts/electricthermalstorage/default.aspx">http://www.nspower.ca/en/home/residential/homeheatingproducts/electricthermalstorage/default.aspx</a></h5>

<p>Smart metering extends these concepts so that the rates may be adjusted depending on the availability of renewable electricity with large collections of time flexible appliances assembled into virtual power plants. </p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://canmetenergy.nrcan.gc.ca/sites/canmetenergy.nrcan.gc.ca/files/files/pubs/2013-057_en.pdf">http://canmetenergy.nrcan.gc.ca/sites/canmetenergy.nrcan.gc.ca/files/files/pubs/2013-057_en.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/energy/science/programs-funding/2048">http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/energy/science/programs-funding/2048</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.scc.ca/sites/default/files/publications/Smart-Grid-Report_FINALOCT2_EN.pdf">http://www.scc.ca/sites/default/files/publications/Smart-Grid-Report_FINALOCT2_EN.pdf</a>
</h5>

<h1>DEMAND MANAGEMENT</h1>

<p>Many energy systems that use electricity through battery charging or directly to produce heat or cold can be adapted to effectively store significant energy. These systems allow consumers to control their electricity use and take advantage of lower power rates.  In particular as insulation quality in homes increases, instantaneous need for electricity will be limited to relatively low load lighting and electronics loads.</p>  

<p>Control of water heaters, boilers and all types of refrigeration equipment (at the consumer, retail or industrial level) can store significant energy simply by adjusting the temperature of the heated or cooled material by a few degrees. These "Demand Response" systems applied widely across an electricity system can provide significant effective load shifting without intervention, discomfort or inconvenience to electricity users.</p> 

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://eetd.lbl.gov/news/article/15242/the-building-as-an-energy-storage-device-fast-demand-response-as-a-solution-to-in">http://eetd.lbl.gov/news/article/15242/the-building-as-an-energy-storage-device-fast-demand-response-as-a-solution-to-in</a></h5>

<p>Beyond adjusting control settings for equipment, many systems can build in energy storage to give them greater turn down (or up) capacity. For example, ice storage is widely used to shift air conditioning loads from peak times mid-day to periods of low demand in the evening. As the timeliness of electricity generation becomes more important to a reliable electricity grid, smart grid rules and systems will be implemented to take advantage the demand response potential in our homes and workplaces.</p>

<p></p>
<h5>If you have a comment or want to recommend a link or find a broken link, please email us:<br> 
<a href="mailto:energy@ecologyaction.ca">energy@ecologyaction.ca</a></h5>

</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>

<script type="text/javascript">
jQuery(document).ready(function() { jQuery("a.sc-modal-link").fancybox({ "hideOnContentClick": true }); });
</script>
  • <p class="black-text">Today, power lines in our community<br>carry electricity to us from large generators.</p>

<p>By 2030, our DISTRIBUTION grid will<br>also host rooftop solar and other community<br>power producers that will increase<br>our energy security. </p>

<a class="sc-button sc-modal-link alignleft light" style=" width: 150px; " href="#sc-modal-window-modal21">READ MORE</a>

<div style="display: none;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div id="sc-modal-window-modal21" class="sc-modal-content entry-content content-style" style="position:relative; width:600px; height:350px;">
<h3>READ MORE: Modernize Our Grid</h3>

<h1>OUR EVOLVING GRID</h1>

<p>Our local electricity system has evolved from many small community and industrial power grids into a single province-wide electricity system. As well, our provincial grid is connected to a North American system that continues to evolve. Always a politically charged subject, our electricity grid development was shaped throughout the 20th century by the forces of modernization, industrialization and global energy price shocks. (For a good historical account, see: Power Failure?, by Richard Starr, Formac Publishing, 2011.) The 21st century will continue this process as we transition to fossil free electricity.</p>

<p>Drawing upon renewable energy will drive further changes to the system of transmission and distribution lines around the globe, including Nova Scotia. Because generation sources will be more variable, smaller and distributed over the grid, it will have to be strengthened to ensure that local grid generation and demand remain in balance.</p>

<p>The North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC), has begun to explore the implications of the coming electricity system changes. Even this cautious, business-as-usual organization concludes: </p>

<p>
• The timing of carbon reduction targets will require an unprecedented shift in North America's resource mix;<br>
• Regional solutions are needed to respond to climate change initiatives, driven by unique system characteristics<br> 
 and existing infrastructure;<br>
• The addition of new resources increases the need for transmission and energy storage and balancing reserves;<br>
• Carbon reduction from increasing demand-side management must be balanced against potential<br>
 reliability impacts;<br>
• Climate change efforts that increasingly depend on distribution system options and applications can, in aggregate, impact power system reliability. Clearly, change is in the wind for our entire electricity system.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://www.nerc.com/files/ricci_2010.pdf">http://www.nerc.com/files/ricci_2010.pdf</a></h5>


<h1>DISTRIBUTION GRID</h1>

<p>Adding many small energy sources to our distribution grid - the lines that bring electricity to buildings within our communities - will require change. Lines that were installed to deliver electricity in one direction may ultimately have to operate in both directions. New standards to maintain reliability and safety have been developed and the implications of increased local electricity production understood. For a good general discussion, see:</p>

<h5><a href="http://www.ilsr.org/political-and-technical-advantages-distributed-generation/">http://www.ilsr.org/political-and-technical-advantages-distributed-generation/</a></h5>


<p>Power utilities control the level of distribution grid generation to maintain accepted levels of reliability. As distributed generation increases, new controls and methods of maintaining a reliable power grid will permit greater levels of distributed generation. You can look at the distribution grid capacity in your Nova Scotia neighborhood here:</p>

<h5><a href="http://www.nspower.ca/en/home/environment/renewableenergy/comfit/capacity.aspx">http://www.nspower.ca/en/home/environment/renewableenergy/comfit/capacity.aspx</a></h5>


<h1>TRANSMISSION GRID</h1>

<p>The Nova Scotia transmission grid connects large generators in Cape Breton, Trenton and Halifax to large load centers in the province. These include large industrial consumers like pulp mills and large communities, in particular the urban/suburban core of Halifax Regional Municipality (HRM).</p> 

<p>As the location and quantity of power generation shifts, so will our transmission system have to change. In particular, with variable resources like wind, additional transmission capacity will be required to connect and deliver more wind energy.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/EM/Wind/NS-Wind-Integration-Study-FINAL.pdf">http://www.gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/EM/Wind/NS-Wind-Integration-Study-FINAL.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://oasis.nspower.ca/site-nsp/media/Oasis/2012%2010%20Year%20System%20Outlook%20Report%20June%2029%202012.pdf">http://oasis.nspower.ca/site-nsp/media/Oasis/2012%2010%20Year%20System%20Outlook%20Report%20June%2029%202012.pdf</a><br>
<a href="http://www.uwig.org/nbso_wind_study_project_final_summary_report_may_2007.pdf">http://www.uwig.org/nbso_wind_study_project_final_summary_report_may_2007.pdf</a>
</h5>

<h1>REGIONALIZE</h1>

<p>Variable renewable energy, especially wind energy, rises and falls on a day to day basis over the length of Nova Scotia. Over a larger area, this effect is moderated. To take best advantage of wind energy, good regional transmission connections are required to move excess wind energy to areas where renewable generation is low.</p>

<p>Over large enough areas, good transmission and wind energy development can meet the demands for reliable electricity with little fossil backup or storage to very large metropolitan areas as shown for recent studies of both the PJM (Pennsylvania, Jersey and Maryland) the New York interconnection regions.</p> 

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://green.wiwo.de/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/BudischakEtAl-2013-CostMinimizedWindSolarPJM.pdf">http://green.wiwo.de/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/BudischakEtAl-2013-CostMinimizedWindSolarPJM.pdf</a></h5>

<p>(Cory Budischak, DeAnna Sewell, Heather Thomson, Leon Mach, Dana E. Veron, Willett Kempton. Cost-minimized combinations of wind power, solar power and electrochemical storage, powering the grid up to 99.9% of the time. Journal of Power Sources, 2013; 225: 60 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.09.054)</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=how-to-power-the-world&page=2">http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=how-to-power-the-world&page=2</a></h5>

<p>Nova Scotia's transmission system benefits from connections to New Brunswick and there are significant benefits to having a connection to Newfoundland without consideration of the availability of new hydroelectric power. While development of improved transmission can be costly, the long term benefits increase with the flexibility of the system and the penetration of renewable generation.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.uwig.org/nbso_wind_study_project_final_summary_report_may_2007.pdf">http://www.uwig.org/nbso_wind_study_project_final_summary_report_may_2007.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://nsrenewables.ca/sites/default/files/aeg_transmission_modeling.pdf">http://nsrenewables.ca/sites/default/files/aeg_transmission_modeling.pdf</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.nbso.ca/Public/_private/NBSO%20Discussion%20Paper%20Final%20Pre-release%20Dec%2012,%2020.pdf">http://www.nbso.ca/Public/_private/NBSO%20Discussion%20Paper%20Final%20Pre-release%20Dec%2012,%2020.pdf</a><br>
d: <a href="http://nsrenewables.ca/sites/default/files/aeg_regional_electricity_system_operations.pdf">http://nsrenewables.ca/sites/default/files/aeg_regional_electricity_system_operations.pdf</a>
</h5>

<h1>STORAGE</h1>

<p>Storage systems for electricity offer the ability to save excess renewable generation and hold it for times when there is reduced generation or increased demand. Several technologies offer differing levels of storage capacity:</p>

<h5><a href="http://www.iec.ch/whitepaper/pdf/iecWP-energystorage-LR-en.pdf">http://www.iec.ch/whitepaper/pdf/iecWP-energystorage-LR-en.pdf</a></h5>

<p>Pumped Hydro systems move water between large reservoirs, drawing electricity when pumping water uphill and generating electricity when water is released to the lower reservoir. Many systems operate across North America. Compact underground hydro storage systems have been proposed:</p>

<h5><a href="http://www.launchpnt.com/portfolio/energy/grid-scale-electricity-storage/">http://www.launchpnt.com/portfolio/energy/grid-scale-electricity-storage/</a></h5>

<p>Compressed air energy storage, (CAES), stores compressed gas or air underground to run turbines or feed gas turbines later when extra generation is required.  Two systems have been operating for since 1978 (290 MW Huntorf plant in Germany) and 1991 (110 MW / 26 hours, McIntosh, Alabama), with several more plants under development across North America.</p>

<p>Smaller scale CAES offers significant flexibility and cost savings. These systems use established technology and innovative heat reclamation approaches to be more efficient. A system of this type, by Lightsail energy, is under consideration for a test project in Nova Scotia.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://thechronicleherald.ca/business/139745-compressed-air-may-be-solution-to-energy-storagearey">http://thechronicleherald.ca/business/139745-compressed-air-may-be-solution-to-energy-storagearey</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.lightsail.com/tech/">http://www.lightsail.com/tech/</a>
</h5>

<p>Other potential technologies include storing compressed air in underwater bladders or abandoned mines.On smaller scales, battery systems have been developed and there is much speculation that distributed battery storage will result as battery powered vehicles become more wide spread.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.texastribune.org/2010/11/07/texas-tackles-electricity-storage/">http://www.texastribune.org/2010/11/07/texas-tackles-electricity-storage/</a><br>
b: <a href="http://wind.nrel.gov/public/SeaCon/Proceedings/Copenhagen.Offshore.Wind.2005/documents/papers/PosterW.Kempton_Usingelectricvehiclesasbackupforlarge.pdf">http://wind.nrel.gov/public/SeaCon/Proceedings/Copenhagen.Offshore.Wind.2005/documents/papers/PosterW.Kempton_Usingelectricvehiclesasbackupforlarge.pdf</a>
</h5>

<h1>SMART METERING</h1>

<p>For most consumers today, electricity costs the same regardless of when they use it and simply pay a flat rate for the electricity consumed over a period of a month or two based on a simple electricity meter reading.  Smart metering concepts use meters that can communicate with the consumer and the supplier and keep track of electricity consumption over shorter periods of time.  This allows coordination of electricity supply and demand based on variable price signals and power consumption preferences established by each electricity consumer.</p>

<p>A simple type of smart metering arrangement already exists in Nova Scotia where customers with energy storage heaters are charged based on their time-of-day usage.  The heater stores heat at night when the rate is low and discharges heat during the day when electricity rates are higher. Other appliances, notably electric water heaters can operate on timers to take advantage of the similar pricing.</p>

<h5><a href="http://www.nspower.ca/en/home/residential/homeheatingproducts/electricthermalstorage/default.aspx">http://www.nspower.ca/en/home/residential/homeheatingproducts/electricthermalstorage/default.aspx</a></h5>

<p>Smart metering extends these concepts so that the rates may be adjusted depending on the availability of renewable electricity with large collections of time flexible appliances assembled into virtual power plants. </p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://canmetenergy.nrcan.gc.ca/sites/canmetenergy.nrcan.gc.ca/files/files/pubs/2013-057_en.pdf">http://canmetenergy.nrcan.gc.ca/sites/canmetenergy.nrcan.gc.ca/files/files/pubs/2013-057_en.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/energy/science/programs-funding/2048">http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/energy/science/programs-funding/2048</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.scc.ca/sites/default/files/publications/Smart-Grid-Report_FINALOCT2_EN.pdf">http://www.scc.ca/sites/default/files/publications/Smart-Grid-Report_FINALOCT2_EN.pdf</a>
</h5>

<h1>DEMAND MANAGEMENT</h1>

<p>Many energy systems that use electricity through battery charging or directly to produce heat or cold can be adapted to effectively store significant energy. These systems allow consumers to control their electricity use and take advantage of lower power rates.  In particular as insulation quality in homes increases, instantaneous need for electricity will be limited to relatively low load lighting and electronics loads.</p>  

<p>Control of water heaters, boilers and all types of refrigeration equipment (at the consumer, retail or industrial level) can store significant energy simply by adjusting the temperature of the heated or cooled material by a few degrees. These "Demand Response" systems applied widely across an electricity system can provide significant effective load shifting without intervention, discomfort or inconvenience to electricity users.</p> 

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://eetd.lbl.gov/news/article/15242/the-building-as-an-energy-storage-device-fast-demand-response-as-a-solution-to-in">http://eetd.lbl.gov/news/article/15242/the-building-as-an-energy-storage-device-fast-demand-response-as-a-solution-to-in</a></h5>

<p>Beyond adjusting control settings for equipment, many systems can build in energy storage to give them greater turn down (or up) capacity. For example, ice storage is widely used to shift air conditioning loads from peak times mid-day to periods of low demand in the evening. As the timeliness of electricity generation becomes more important to a reliable electricity grid, smart grid rules and systems will be implemented to take advantage the demand response potential in our homes and workplaces.</p>

<p></p>
<h5>If you have a comment or want to recommend a link or find a broken link, please email us:<br> 
<a href="mailto:energy@ecologyaction.ca">energy@ecologyaction.ca</a></h5>

</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>

<script type="text/javascript">
jQuery(document).ready(function() { jQuery("a.sc-modal-link").fancybox({ "hideOnContentClick": true }); });
</script>
  • <p class="black-text">Large power lines bring electricity from<br>coal plants to large industrial customers<br>and population centers.</p>

<p>By 2030, strong TRANSMISSION lines<br>will extend throughout the province so that<br>renewable energy can FLOW from where<br>it is available to where it is used.</p>

<a class="sc-button sc-modal-link alignleft light" style=" width: 150px; " href="#sc-modal-window-modal22">READ MORE</a>

<div style="display: none;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div id="sc-modal-window-modal22" class="sc-modal-content entry-content content-style" style="position:relative; width:600px; height:350px;">
<h3>READ MORE: Modernize Our Grid</h3>

<h1>OUR EVOLVING GRID</h1>

<p>Our local electricity system has evolved from many small community and industrial power grids into a single province-wide electricity system. As well, our provincial grid is connected to a North American system that continues to evolve. Always a politically charged subject, our electricity grid development was shaped throughout the 20th century by the forces of modernization, industrialization and global energy price shocks. (For a good historical account, see: Power Failure?, by Richard Starr, Formac Publishing, 2011.) The 21st century will continue this process as we transition to fossil free electricity.</p>

<p>Drawing upon renewable energy will drive further changes to the system of transmission and distribution lines around the globe, including Nova Scotia. Because generation sources will be more variable, smaller and distributed over the grid, it will have to be strengthened to ensure that local grid generation and demand remain in balance.</p>

<p>The North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC), has begun to explore the implications of the coming electricity system changes. Even this cautious, business-as-usual organization concludes: </p>

<p>
• The timing of carbon reduction targets will require an unprecedented shift in North America's resource mix;<br>
• Regional solutions are needed to respond to climate change initiatives, driven by unique system characteristics<br> 
 and existing infrastructure;<br>
• The addition of new resources increases the need for transmission and energy storage and balancing reserves;<br>
• Carbon reduction from increasing demand-side management must be balanced against potential<br>
 reliability impacts;<br>
• Climate change efforts that increasingly depend on distribution system options and applications can, in aggregate, impact power system reliability. Clearly, change is in the wind for our entire electricity system.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://www.nerc.com/files/ricci_2010.pdf">http://www.nerc.com/files/ricci_2010.pdf</a></h5>


<h1>DISTRIBUTION GRID</h1>

<p>Adding many small energy sources to our distribution grid - the lines that bring electricity to buildings within our communities - will require change. Lines that were installed to deliver electricity in one direction may ultimately have to operate in both directions. New standards to maintain reliability and safety have been developed and the implications of increased local electricity production understood. For a good general discussion, see:</p>

<h5><a href="http://www.ilsr.org/political-and-technical-advantages-distributed-generation/">http://www.ilsr.org/political-and-technical-advantages-distributed-generation/</a></h5>


<p>Power utilities control the level of distribution grid generation to maintain accepted levels of reliability. As distributed generation increases, new controls and methods of maintaining a reliable power grid will permit greater levels of distributed generation. You can look at the distribution grid capacity in your Nova Scotia neighborhood here:</p>

<h5><a href="http://www.nspower.ca/en/home/environment/renewableenergy/comfit/capacity.aspx">http://www.nspower.ca/en/home/environment/renewableenergy/comfit/capacity.aspx</a></h5>


<h1>TRANSMISSION GRID</h1>

<p>The Nova Scotia transmission grid connects large generators in Cape Breton, Trenton and Halifax to large load centers in the province. These include large industrial consumers like pulp mills and large communities, in particular the urban/suburban core of Halifax Regional Municipality (HRM).</p> 

<p>As the location and quantity of power generation shifts, so will our transmission system have to change. In particular, with variable resources like wind, additional transmission capacity will be required to connect and deliver more wind energy.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/EM/Wind/NS-Wind-Integration-Study-FINAL.pdf">http://www.gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/EM/Wind/NS-Wind-Integration-Study-FINAL.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://oasis.nspower.ca/site-nsp/media/Oasis/2012%2010%20Year%20System%20Outlook%20Report%20June%2029%202012.pdf">http://oasis.nspower.ca/site-nsp/media/Oasis/2012%2010%20Year%20System%20Outlook%20Report%20June%2029%202012.pdf</a><br>
<a href="http://www.uwig.org/nbso_wind_study_project_final_summary_report_may_2007.pdf">http://www.uwig.org/nbso_wind_study_project_final_summary_report_may_2007.pdf</a>
</h5>

<h1>REGIONALIZE</h1>

<p>Variable renewable energy, especially wind energy, rises and falls on a day to day basis over the length of Nova Scotia. Over a larger area, this effect is moderated. To take best advantage of wind energy, good regional transmission connections are required to move excess wind energy to areas where renewable generation is low.</p>

<p>Over large enough areas, good transmission and wind energy development can meet the demands for reliable electricity with little fossil backup or storage to very large metropolitan areas as shown for recent studies of both the PJM (Pennsylvania, Jersey and Maryland) the New York interconnection regions.</p> 

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://green.wiwo.de/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/BudischakEtAl-2013-CostMinimizedWindSolarPJM.pdf">http://green.wiwo.de/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/BudischakEtAl-2013-CostMinimizedWindSolarPJM.pdf</a></h5>

<p>(Cory Budischak, DeAnna Sewell, Heather Thomson, Leon Mach, Dana E. Veron, Willett Kempton. Cost-minimized combinations of wind power, solar power and electrochemical storage, powering the grid up to 99.9% of the time. Journal of Power Sources, 2013; 225: 60 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.09.054)</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=how-to-power-the-world&page=2">http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=how-to-power-the-world&page=2</a></h5>

<p>Nova Scotia's transmission system benefits from connections to New Brunswick and there are significant benefits to having a connection to Newfoundland without consideration of the availability of new hydroelectric power. While development of improved transmission can be costly, the long term benefits increase with the flexibility of the system and the penetration of renewable generation.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.uwig.org/nbso_wind_study_project_final_summary_report_may_2007.pdf">http://www.uwig.org/nbso_wind_study_project_final_summary_report_may_2007.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://nsrenewables.ca/sites/default/files/aeg_transmission_modeling.pdf">http://nsrenewables.ca/sites/default/files/aeg_transmission_modeling.pdf</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.nbso.ca/Public/_private/NBSO%20Discussion%20Paper%20Final%20Pre-release%20Dec%2012,%2020.pdf">http://www.nbso.ca/Public/_private/NBSO%20Discussion%20Paper%20Final%20Pre-release%20Dec%2012,%2020.pdf</a><br>
d: <a href="http://nsrenewables.ca/sites/default/files/aeg_regional_electricity_system_operations.pdf">http://nsrenewables.ca/sites/default/files/aeg_regional_electricity_system_operations.pdf</a>
</h5>

<h1>STORAGE</h1>

<p>Storage systems for electricity offer the ability to save excess renewable generation and hold it for times when there is reduced generation or increased demand. Several technologies offer differing levels of storage capacity:</p>

<h5><a href="http://www.iec.ch/whitepaper/pdf/iecWP-energystorage-LR-en.pdf">http://www.iec.ch/whitepaper/pdf/iecWP-energystorage-LR-en.pdf</a></h5>

<p>Pumped Hydro systems move water between large reservoirs, drawing electricity when pumping water uphill and generating electricity when water is released to the lower reservoir. Many systems operate across North America. Compact underground hydro storage systems have been proposed:</p>

<h5><a href="http://www.launchpnt.com/portfolio/energy/grid-scale-electricity-storage/">http://www.launchpnt.com/portfolio/energy/grid-scale-electricity-storage/</a></h5>

<p>Compressed air energy storage, (CAES), stores compressed gas or air underground to run turbines or feed gas turbines later when extra generation is required.  Two systems have been operating for since 1978 (290 MW Huntorf plant in Germany) and 1991 (110 MW / 26 hours, McIntosh, Alabama), with several more plants under development across North America.</p>

<p>Smaller scale CAES offers significant flexibility and cost savings. These systems use established technology and innovative heat reclamation approaches to be more efficient. A system of this type, by Lightsail energy, is under consideration for a test project in Nova Scotia.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://thechronicleherald.ca/business/139745-compressed-air-may-be-solution-to-energy-storagearey">http://thechronicleherald.ca/business/139745-compressed-air-may-be-solution-to-energy-storagearey</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.lightsail.com/tech/">http://www.lightsail.com/tech/</a>
</h5>

<p>Other potential technologies include storing compressed air in underwater bladders or abandoned mines.On smaller scales, battery systems have been developed and there is much speculation that distributed battery storage will result as battery powered vehicles become more wide spread.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.texastribune.org/2010/11/07/texas-tackles-electricity-storage/">http://www.texastribune.org/2010/11/07/texas-tackles-electricity-storage/</a><br>
b: <a href="http://wind.nrel.gov/public/SeaCon/Proceedings/Copenhagen.Offshore.Wind.2005/documents/papers/PosterW.Kempton_Usingelectricvehiclesasbackupforlarge.pdf">http://wind.nrel.gov/public/SeaCon/Proceedings/Copenhagen.Offshore.Wind.2005/documents/papers/PosterW.Kempton_Usingelectricvehiclesasbackupforlarge.pdf</a>
</h5>

<h1>SMART METERING</h1>

<p>For most consumers today, electricity costs the same regardless of when they use it and simply pay a flat rate for the electricity consumed over a period of a month or two based on a simple electricity meter reading.  Smart metering concepts use meters that can communicate with the consumer and the supplier and keep track of electricity consumption over shorter periods of time.  This allows coordination of electricity supply and demand based on variable price signals and power consumption preferences established by each electricity consumer.</p>

<p>A simple type of smart metering arrangement already exists in Nova Scotia where customers with energy storage heaters are charged based on their time-of-day usage.  The heater stores heat at night when the rate is low and discharges heat during the day when electricity rates are higher. Other appliances, notably electric water heaters can operate on timers to take advantage of the similar pricing.</p>

<h5><a href="http://www.nspower.ca/en/home/residential/homeheatingproducts/electricthermalstorage/default.aspx">http://www.nspower.ca/en/home/residential/homeheatingproducts/electricthermalstorage/default.aspx</a></h5>

<p>Smart metering extends these concepts so that the rates may be adjusted depending on the availability of renewable electricity with large collections of time flexible appliances assembled into virtual power plants. </p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://canmetenergy.nrcan.gc.ca/sites/canmetenergy.nrcan.gc.ca/files/files/pubs/2013-057_en.pdf">http://canmetenergy.nrcan.gc.ca/sites/canmetenergy.nrcan.gc.ca/files/files/pubs/2013-057_en.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/energy/science/programs-funding/2048">http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/energy/science/programs-funding/2048</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.scc.ca/sites/default/files/publications/Smart-Grid-Report_FINALOCT2_EN.pdf">http://www.scc.ca/sites/default/files/publications/Smart-Grid-Report_FINALOCT2_EN.pdf</a>
</h5>

<h1>DEMAND MANAGEMENT</h1>

<p>Many energy systems that use electricity through battery charging or directly to produce heat or cold can be adapted to effectively store significant energy. These systems allow consumers to control their electricity use and take advantage of lower power rates.  In particular as insulation quality in homes increases, instantaneous need for electricity will be limited to relatively low load lighting and electronics loads.</p>  

<p>Control of water heaters, boilers and all types of refrigeration equipment (at the consumer, retail or industrial level) can store significant energy simply by adjusting the temperature of the heated or cooled material by a few degrees. These "Demand Response" systems applied widely across an electricity system can provide significant effective load shifting without intervention, discomfort or inconvenience to electricity users.</p> 

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://eetd.lbl.gov/news/article/15242/the-building-as-an-energy-storage-device-fast-demand-response-as-a-solution-to-in">http://eetd.lbl.gov/news/article/15242/the-building-as-an-energy-storage-device-fast-demand-response-as-a-solution-to-in</a></h5>

<p>Beyond adjusting control settings for equipment, many systems can build in energy storage to give them greater turn down (or up) capacity. For example, ice storage is widely used to shift air conditioning loads from peak times mid-day to periods of low demand in the evening. As the timeliness of electricity generation becomes more important to a reliable electricity grid, smart grid rules and systems will be implemented to take advantage the demand response potential in our homes and workplaces.</p>

<p></p>
<h5>If you have a comment or want to recommend a link or find a broken link, please email us:<br> 
<a href="mailto:energy@ecologyaction.ca">energy@ecologyaction.ca</a></h5>

</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>

<script type="text/javascript">
jQuery(document).ready(function() { jQuery("a.sc-modal-link").fancybox({ "hideOnContentClick": true }); });
</script>
  • <p>As Nova Scotia and our neighbors shift to<br>fossil free power, good connections between<br>us will REGIONALIZE how we balance<br>our electricity supply.</p>

<p class="black-text">Larger balancing regions make the MOST of<br>wind energy and provide a more RELIABLE grid.</p>

<a class="sc-button sc-modal-link alignleft light" style=" width: 150px; " href="#sc-modal-window-modal23">READ MORE</a>

<div style="display: none;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div id="sc-modal-window-modal23" class="sc-modal-content entry-content content-style" style="position:relative; width:600px; height:350px;">
<h3>READ MORE: Modernize Our Grid</h3>

<h1>OUR EVOLVING GRID</h1>

<p>Our local electricity system has evolved from many small community and industrial power grids into a single province-wide electricity system. As well, our provincial grid is connected to a North American system that continues to evolve. Always a politically charged subject, our electricity grid development was shaped throughout the 20th century by the forces of modernization, industrialization and global energy price shocks. (For a good historical account, see: Power Failure?, by Richard Starr, Formac Publishing, 2011.) The 21st century will continue this process as we transition to fossil free electricity.</p>

<p>Drawing upon renewable energy will drive further changes to the system of transmission and distribution lines around the globe, including Nova Scotia. Because generation sources will be more variable, smaller and distributed over the grid, it will have to be strengthened to ensure that local grid generation and demand remain in balance.</p>

<p>The North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC), has begun to explore the implications of the coming electricity system changes. Even this cautious, business-as-usual organization concludes: </p>

<p>
• The timing of carbon reduction targets will require an unprecedented shift in North America's resource mix;<br>
• Regional solutions are needed to respond to climate change initiatives, driven by unique system characteristics<br> 
 and existing infrastructure;<br>
• The addition of new resources increases the need for transmission and energy storage and balancing reserves;<br>
• Carbon reduction from increasing demand-side management must be balanced against potential<br>
 reliability impacts;<br>
• Climate change efforts that increasingly depend on distribution system options and applications can, in aggregate, impact power system reliability. Clearly, change is in the wind for our entire electricity system.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://www.nerc.com/files/ricci_2010.pdf">http://www.nerc.com/files/ricci_2010.pdf</a></h5>


<h1>DISTRIBUTION GRID</h1>

<p>Adding many small energy sources to our distribution grid - the lines that bring electricity to buildings within our communities - will require change. Lines that were installed to deliver electricity in one direction may ultimately have to operate in both directions. New standards to maintain reliability and safety have been developed and the implications of increased local electricity production understood. For a good general discussion, see:</p>

<h5><a href="http://www.ilsr.org/political-and-technical-advantages-distributed-generation/">http://www.ilsr.org/political-and-technical-advantages-distributed-generation/</a></h5>


<p>Power utilities control the level of distribution grid generation to maintain accepted levels of reliability. As distributed generation increases, new controls and methods of maintaining a reliable power grid will permit greater levels of distributed generation. You can look at the distribution grid capacity in your Nova Scotia neighborhood here:</p>

<h5><a href="http://www.nspower.ca/en/home/environment/renewableenergy/comfit/capacity.aspx">http://www.nspower.ca/en/home/environment/renewableenergy/comfit/capacity.aspx</a></h5>


<h1>TRANSMISSION GRID</h1>

<p>The Nova Scotia transmission grid connects large generators in Cape Breton, Trenton and Halifax to large load centers in the province. These include large industrial consumers like pulp mills and large communities, in particular the urban/suburban core of Halifax Regional Municipality (HRM).</p> 

<p>As the location and quantity of power generation shifts, so will our transmission system have to change. In particular, with variable resources like wind, additional transmission capacity will be required to connect and deliver more wind energy.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/EM/Wind/NS-Wind-Integration-Study-FINAL.pdf">http://www.gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/EM/Wind/NS-Wind-Integration-Study-FINAL.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://oasis.nspower.ca/site-nsp/media/Oasis/2012%2010%20Year%20System%20Outlook%20Report%20June%2029%202012.pdf">http://oasis.nspower.ca/site-nsp/media/Oasis/2012%2010%20Year%20System%20Outlook%20Report%20June%2029%202012.pdf</a><br>
<a href="http://www.uwig.org/nbso_wind_study_project_final_summary_report_may_2007.pdf">http://www.uwig.org/nbso_wind_study_project_final_summary_report_may_2007.pdf</a>
</h5>

<h1>REGIONALIZE</h1>

<p>Variable renewable energy, especially wind energy, rises and falls on a day to day basis over the length of Nova Scotia. Over a larger area, this effect is moderated. To take best advantage of wind energy, good regional transmission connections are required to move excess wind energy to areas where renewable generation is low.</p>

<p>Over large enough areas, good transmission and wind energy development can meet the demands for reliable electricity with little fossil backup or storage to very large metropolitan areas as shown for recent studies of both the PJM (Pennsylvania, Jersey and Maryland) the New York interconnection regions.</p> 

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://green.wiwo.de/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/BudischakEtAl-2013-CostMinimizedWindSolarPJM.pdf">http://green.wiwo.de/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/BudischakEtAl-2013-CostMinimizedWindSolarPJM.pdf</a></h5>

<p>(Cory Budischak, DeAnna Sewell, Heather Thomson, Leon Mach, Dana E. Veron, Willett Kempton. Cost-minimized combinations of wind power, solar power and electrochemical storage, powering the grid up to 99.9% of the time. Journal of Power Sources, 2013; 225: 60 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.09.054)</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=how-to-power-the-world&page=2">http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=how-to-power-the-world&page=2</a></h5>

<p>Nova Scotia's transmission system benefits from connections to New Brunswick and there are significant benefits to having a connection to Newfoundland without consideration of the availability of new hydroelectric power. While development of improved transmission can be costly, the long term benefits increase with the flexibility of the system and the penetration of renewable generation.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.uwig.org/nbso_wind_study_project_final_summary_report_may_2007.pdf">http://www.uwig.org/nbso_wind_study_project_final_summary_report_may_2007.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://nsrenewables.ca/sites/default/files/aeg_transmission_modeling.pdf">http://nsrenewables.ca/sites/default/files/aeg_transmission_modeling.pdf</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.nbso.ca/Public/_private/NBSO%20Discussion%20Paper%20Final%20Pre-release%20Dec%2012,%2020.pdf">http://www.nbso.ca/Public/_private/NBSO%20Discussion%20Paper%20Final%20Pre-release%20Dec%2012,%2020.pdf</a><br>
d: <a href="http://nsrenewables.ca/sites/default/files/aeg_regional_electricity_system_operations.pdf">http://nsrenewables.ca/sites/default/files/aeg_regional_electricity_system_operations.pdf</a>
</h5>

<h1>STORAGE</h1>

<p>Storage systems for electricity offer the ability to save excess renewable generation and hold it for times when there is reduced generation or increased demand. Several technologies offer differing levels of storage capacity:</p>

<h5><a href="http://www.iec.ch/whitepaper/pdf/iecWP-energystorage-LR-en.pdf">http://www.iec.ch/whitepaper/pdf/iecWP-energystorage-LR-en.pdf</a></h5>

<p>Pumped Hydro systems move water between large reservoirs, drawing electricity when pumping water uphill and generating electricity when water is released to the lower reservoir. Many systems operate across North America. Compact underground hydro storage systems have been proposed:</p>

<h5><a href="http://www.launchpnt.com/portfolio/energy/grid-scale-electricity-storage/">http://www.launchpnt.com/portfolio/energy/grid-scale-electricity-storage/</a></h5>

<p>Compressed air energy storage, (CAES), stores compressed gas or air underground to run turbines or feed gas turbines later when extra generation is required.  Two systems have been operating for since 1978 (290 MW Huntorf plant in Germany) and 1991 (110 MW / 26 hours, McIntosh, Alabama), with several more plants under development across North America.</p>

<p>Smaller scale CAES offers significant flexibility and cost savings. These systems use established technology and innovative heat reclamation approaches to be more efficient. A system of this type, by Lightsail energy, is under consideration for a test project in Nova Scotia.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://thechronicleherald.ca/business/139745-compressed-air-may-be-solution-to-energy-storagearey">http://thechronicleherald.ca/business/139745-compressed-air-may-be-solution-to-energy-storagearey</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.lightsail.com/tech/">http://www.lightsail.com/tech/</a>
</h5>

<p>Other potential technologies include storing compressed air in underwater bladders or abandoned mines.On smaller scales, battery systems have been developed and there is much speculation that distributed battery storage will result as battery powered vehicles become more wide spread.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.texastribune.org/2010/11/07/texas-tackles-electricity-storage/">http://www.texastribune.org/2010/11/07/texas-tackles-electricity-storage/</a><br>
b: <a href="http://wind.nrel.gov/public/SeaCon/Proceedings/Copenhagen.Offshore.Wind.2005/documents/papers/PosterW.Kempton_Usingelectricvehiclesasbackupforlarge.pdf">http://wind.nrel.gov/public/SeaCon/Proceedings/Copenhagen.Offshore.Wind.2005/documents/papers/PosterW.Kempton_Usingelectricvehiclesasbackupforlarge.pdf</a>
</h5>

<h1>SMART METERING</h1>

<p>For most consumers today, electricity costs the same regardless of when they use it and simply pay a flat rate for the electricity consumed over a period of a month or two based on a simple electricity meter reading.  Smart metering concepts use meters that can communicate with the consumer and the supplier and keep track of electricity consumption over shorter periods of time.  This allows coordination of electricity supply and demand based on variable price signals and power consumption preferences established by each electricity consumer.</p>

<p>A simple type of smart metering arrangement already exists in Nova Scotia where customers with energy storage heaters are charged based on their time-of-day usage.  The heater stores heat at night when the rate is low and discharges heat during the day when electricity rates are higher. Other appliances, notably electric water heaters can operate on timers to take advantage of the similar pricing.</p>

<h5><a href="http://www.nspower.ca/en/home/residential/homeheatingproducts/electricthermalstorage/default.aspx">http://www.nspower.ca/en/home/residential/homeheatingproducts/electricthermalstorage/default.aspx</a></h5>

<p>Smart metering extends these concepts so that the rates may be adjusted depending on the availability of renewable electricity with large collections of time flexible appliances assembled into virtual power plants. </p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://canmetenergy.nrcan.gc.ca/sites/canmetenergy.nrcan.gc.ca/files/files/pubs/2013-057_en.pdf">http://canmetenergy.nrcan.gc.ca/sites/canmetenergy.nrcan.gc.ca/files/files/pubs/2013-057_en.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/energy/science/programs-funding/2048">http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/energy/science/programs-funding/2048</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.scc.ca/sites/default/files/publications/Smart-Grid-Report_FINALOCT2_EN.pdf">http://www.scc.ca/sites/default/files/publications/Smart-Grid-Report_FINALOCT2_EN.pdf</a>
</h5>

<h1>DEMAND MANAGEMENT</h1>

<p>Many energy systems that use electricity through battery charging or directly to produce heat or cold can be adapted to effectively store significant energy. These systems allow consumers to control their electricity use and take advantage of lower power rates.  In particular as insulation quality in homes increases, instantaneous need for electricity will be limited to relatively low load lighting and electronics loads.</p>  

<p>Control of water heaters, boilers and all types of refrigeration equipment (at the consumer, retail or industrial level) can store significant energy simply by adjusting the temperature of the heated or cooled material by a few degrees. These "Demand Response" systems applied widely across an electricity system can provide significant effective load shifting without intervention, discomfort or inconvenience to electricity users.</p> 

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://eetd.lbl.gov/news/article/15242/the-building-as-an-energy-storage-device-fast-demand-response-as-a-solution-to-in">http://eetd.lbl.gov/news/article/15242/the-building-as-an-energy-storage-device-fast-demand-response-as-a-solution-to-in</a></h5>

<p>Beyond adjusting control settings for equipment, many systems can build in energy storage to give them greater turn down (or up) capacity. For example, ice storage is widely used to shift air conditioning loads from peak times mid-day to periods of low demand in the evening. As the timeliness of electricity generation becomes more important to a reliable electricity grid, smart grid rules and systems will be implemented to take advantage the demand response potential in our homes and workplaces.</p>

<p></p>
<h5>If you have a comment or want to recommend a link or find a broken link, please email us:<br> 
<a href="mailto:energy@ecologyaction.ca">energy@ecologyaction.ca</a></h5>

</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>

<script type="text/javascript">
jQuery(document).ready(function() { jQuery("a.sc-modal-link").fancybox({ "hideOnContentClick": true }); });
</script>
  • <p>Energy STORAGE can hold excess renewable<br>energy until it is needed.  Hydropower,<br>compressed air and batteries are used<br>as electricity storage TODAY.</p>

<p class="black-text">As coal plants are converted and retired,<br>storage will be needed to guarantee<br>RELIABLE electricity.</p>

<a class="sc-button sc-modal-link alignleft light" style=" width: 150px; " href="#sc-modal-window-modal25">READ MORE</a>

<div style="display: none;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div id="sc-modal-window-modal25" class="sc-modal-content entry-content content-style" style="position:relative; width:600px; height:350px;">
<h3>READ MORE: Modernize Our Grid</h3>

<h1>OUR EVOLVING GRID</h1>

<p>Our local electricity system has evolved from many small community and industrial power grids into a single province-wide electricity system. As well, our provincial grid is connected to a North American system that continues to evolve. Always a politically charged subject, our electricity grid development was shaped throughout the 20th century by the forces of modernization, industrialization and global energy price shocks. (For a good historical account, see: Power Failure?, by Richard Starr, Formac Publishing, 2011.) The 21st century will continue this process as we transition to fossil free electricity.</p>

<p>Drawing upon renewable energy will drive further changes to the system of transmission and distribution lines around the globe, including Nova Scotia. Because generation sources will be more variable, smaller and distributed over the grid, it will have to be strengthened to ensure that local grid generation and demand remain in balance.</p>

<p>The North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC), has begun to explore the implications of the coming electricity system changes. Even this cautious, business-as-usual organization concludes: </p>

<p>
• The timing of carbon reduction targets will require an unprecedented shift in North America's resource mix;<br>
• Regional solutions are needed to respond to climate change initiatives, driven by unique system characteristics<br> 
 and existing infrastructure;<br>
• The addition of new resources increases the need for transmission and energy storage and balancing reserves;<br>
• Carbon reduction from increasing demand-side management must be balanced against potential<br>
 reliability impacts;<br>
• Climate change efforts that increasingly depend on distribution system options and applications can, in aggregate, impact power system reliability. Clearly, change is in the wind for our entire electricity system.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://www.nerc.com/files/ricci_2010.pdf">http://www.nerc.com/files/ricci_2010.pdf</a></h5>


<h1>DISTRIBUTION GRID</h1>

<p>Adding many small energy sources to our distribution grid - the lines that bring electricity to buildings within our communities - will require change. Lines that were installed to deliver electricity in one direction may ultimately have to operate in both directions. New standards to maintain reliability and safety have been developed and the implications of increased local electricity production understood. For a good general discussion, see:</p>

<h5><a href="http://www.ilsr.org/political-and-technical-advantages-distributed-generation/">http://www.ilsr.org/political-and-technical-advantages-distributed-generation/</a></h5>


<p>Power utilities control the level of distribution grid generation to maintain accepted levels of reliability. As distributed generation increases, new controls and methods of maintaining a reliable power grid will permit greater levels of distributed generation. You can look at the distribution grid capacity in your Nova Scotia neighborhood here:</p>

<h5><a href="http://www.nspower.ca/en/home/environment/renewableenergy/comfit/capacity.aspx">http://www.nspower.ca/en/home/environment/renewableenergy/comfit/capacity.aspx</a></h5>


<h1>TRANSMISSION GRID</h1>

<p>The Nova Scotia transmission grid connects large generators in Cape Breton, Trenton and Halifax to large load centers in the province. These include large industrial consumers like pulp mills and large communities, in particular the urban/suburban core of Halifax Regional Municipality (HRM).</p> 

<p>As the location and quantity of power generation shifts, so will our transmission system have to change. In particular, with variable resources like wind, additional transmission capacity will be required to connect and deliver more wind energy.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/EM/Wind/NS-Wind-Integration-Study-FINAL.pdf">http://www.gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/EM/Wind/NS-Wind-Integration-Study-FINAL.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://oasis.nspower.ca/site-nsp/media/Oasis/2012%2010%20Year%20System%20Outlook%20Report%20June%2029%202012.pdf">http://oasis.nspower.ca/site-nsp/media/Oasis/2012%2010%20Year%20System%20Outlook%20Report%20June%2029%202012.pdf</a><br>
<a href="http://www.uwig.org/nbso_wind_study_project_final_summary_report_may_2007.pdf">http://www.uwig.org/nbso_wind_study_project_final_summary_report_may_2007.pdf</a>
</h5>

<h1>REGIONALIZE</h1>

<p>Variable renewable energy, especially wind energy, rises and falls on a day to day basis over the length of Nova Scotia. Over a larger area, this effect is moderated. To take best advantage of wind energy, good regional transmission connections are required to move excess wind energy to areas where renewable generation is low.</p>

<p>Over large enough areas, good transmission and wind energy development can meet the demands for reliable electricity with little fossil backup or storage to very large metropolitan areas as shown for recent studies of both the PJM (Pennsylvania, Jersey and Maryland) the New York interconnection regions.</p> 

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://green.wiwo.de/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/BudischakEtAl-2013-CostMinimizedWindSolarPJM.pdf">http://green.wiwo.de/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/BudischakEtAl-2013-CostMinimizedWindSolarPJM.pdf</a></h5>

<p>(Cory Budischak, DeAnna Sewell, Heather Thomson, Leon Mach, Dana E. Veron, Willett Kempton. Cost-minimized combinations of wind power, solar power and electrochemical storage, powering the grid up to 99.9% of the time. Journal of Power Sources, 2013; 225: 60 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.09.054)</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=how-to-power-the-world&page=2">http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=how-to-power-the-world&page=2</a></h5>

<p>Nova Scotia's transmission system benefits from connections to New Brunswick and there are significant benefits to having a connection to Newfoundland without consideration of the availability of new hydroelectric power. While development of improved transmission can be costly, the long term benefits increase with the flexibility of the system and the penetration of renewable generation.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.uwig.org/nbso_wind_study_project_final_summary_report_may_2007.pdf">http://www.uwig.org/nbso_wind_study_project_final_summary_report_may_2007.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://nsrenewables.ca/sites/default/files/aeg_transmission_modeling.pdf">http://nsrenewables.ca/sites/default/files/aeg_transmission_modeling.pdf</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.nbso.ca/Public/_private/NBSO%20Discussion%20Paper%20Final%20Pre-release%20Dec%2012,%2020.pdf">http://www.nbso.ca/Public/_private/NBSO%20Discussion%20Paper%20Final%20Pre-release%20Dec%2012,%2020.pdf</a><br>
d: <a href="http://nsrenewables.ca/sites/default/files/aeg_regional_electricity_system_operations.pdf">http://nsrenewables.ca/sites/default/files/aeg_regional_electricity_system_operations.pdf</a>
</h5>

<h1>STORAGE</h1>

<p>Storage systems for electricity offer the ability to save excess renewable generation and hold it for times when there is reduced generation or increased demand. Several technologies offer differing levels of storage capacity:</p>

<h5><a href="http://www.iec.ch/whitepaper/pdf/iecWP-energystorage-LR-en.pdf">http://www.iec.ch/whitepaper/pdf/iecWP-energystorage-LR-en.pdf</a></h5>

<p>Pumped Hydro systems move water between large reservoirs, drawing electricity when pumping water uphill and generating electricity when water is released to the lower reservoir. Many systems operate across North America. Compact underground hydro storage systems have been proposed:</p>

<h5><a href="http://www.launchpnt.com/portfolio/energy/grid-scale-electricity-storage/">http://www.launchpnt.com/portfolio/energy/grid-scale-electricity-storage/</a></h5>

<p>Compressed air energy storage, (CAES), stores compressed gas or air underground to run turbines or feed gas turbines later when extra generation is required.  Two systems have been operating for since 1978 (290 MW Huntorf plant in Germany) and 1991 (110 MW / 26 hours, McIntosh, Alabama), with several more plants under development across North America.</p>

<p>Smaller scale CAES offers significant flexibility and cost savings. These systems use established technology and innovative heat reclamation approaches to be more efficient. A system of this type, by Lightsail energy, is under consideration for a test project in Nova Scotia.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://thechronicleherald.ca/business/139745-compressed-air-may-be-solution-to-energy-storagearey">http://thechronicleherald.ca/business/139745-compressed-air-may-be-solution-to-energy-storagearey</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.lightsail.com/tech/">http://www.lightsail.com/tech/</a>
</h5>

<p>Other potential technologies include storing compressed air in underwater bladders or abandoned mines.On smaller scales, battery systems have been developed and there is much speculation that distributed battery storage will result as battery powered vehicles become more wide spread.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.texastribune.org/2010/11/07/texas-tackles-electricity-storage/">http://www.texastribune.org/2010/11/07/texas-tackles-electricity-storage/</a><br>
b: <a href="http://wind.nrel.gov/public/SeaCon/Proceedings/Copenhagen.Offshore.Wind.2005/documents/papers/PosterW.Kempton_Usingelectricvehiclesasbackupforlarge.pdf">http://wind.nrel.gov/public/SeaCon/Proceedings/Copenhagen.Offshore.Wind.2005/documents/papers/PosterW.Kempton_Usingelectricvehiclesasbackupforlarge.pdf</a>
</h5>

<h1>SMART METERING</h1>

<p>For most consumers today, electricity costs the same regardless of when they use it and simply pay a flat rate for the electricity consumed over a period of a month or two based on a simple electricity meter reading.  Smart metering concepts use meters that can communicate with the consumer and the supplier and keep track of electricity consumption over shorter periods of time.  This allows coordination of electricity supply and demand based on variable price signals and power consumption preferences established by each electricity consumer.</p>

<p>A simple type of smart metering arrangement already exists in Nova Scotia where customers with energy storage heaters are charged based on their time-of-day usage.  The heater stores heat at night when the rate is low and discharges heat during the day when electricity rates are higher. Other appliances, notably electric water heaters can operate on timers to take advantage of the similar pricing.</p>

<h5><a href="http://www.nspower.ca/en/home/residential/homeheatingproducts/electricthermalstorage/default.aspx">http://www.nspower.ca/en/home/residential/homeheatingproducts/electricthermalstorage/default.aspx</a></h5>

<p>Smart metering extends these concepts so that the rates may be adjusted depending on the availability of renewable electricity with large collections of time flexible appliances assembled into virtual power plants. </p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://canmetenergy.nrcan.gc.ca/sites/canmetenergy.nrcan.gc.ca/files/files/pubs/2013-057_en.pdf">http://canmetenergy.nrcan.gc.ca/sites/canmetenergy.nrcan.gc.ca/files/files/pubs/2013-057_en.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/energy/science/programs-funding/2048">http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/energy/science/programs-funding/2048</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.scc.ca/sites/default/files/publications/Smart-Grid-Report_FINALOCT2_EN.pdf">http://www.scc.ca/sites/default/files/publications/Smart-Grid-Report_FINALOCT2_EN.pdf</a>
</h5>

<h1>DEMAND MANAGEMENT</h1>

<p>Many energy systems that use electricity through battery charging or directly to produce heat or cold can be adapted to effectively store significant energy. These systems allow consumers to control their electricity use and take advantage of lower power rates.  In particular as insulation quality in homes increases, instantaneous need for electricity will be limited to relatively low load lighting and electronics loads.</p>  

<p>Control of water heaters, boilers and all types of refrigeration equipment (at the consumer, retail or industrial level) can store significant energy simply by adjusting the temperature of the heated or cooled material by a few degrees. These "Demand Response" systems applied widely across an electricity system can provide significant effective load shifting without intervention, discomfort or inconvenience to electricity users.</p> 

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://eetd.lbl.gov/news/article/15242/the-building-as-an-energy-storage-device-fast-demand-response-as-a-solution-to-in">http://eetd.lbl.gov/news/article/15242/the-building-as-an-energy-storage-device-fast-demand-response-as-a-solution-to-in</a></h5>

<p>Beyond adjusting control settings for equipment, many systems can build in energy storage to give them greater turn down (or up) capacity. For example, ice storage is widely used to shift air conditioning loads from peak times mid-day to periods of low demand in the evening. As the timeliness of electricity generation becomes more important to a reliable electricity grid, smart grid rules and systems will be implemented to take advantage the demand response potential in our homes and workplaces.</p>

<p></p>
<h5>If you have a comment or want to recommend a link or find a broken link, please email us:<br> 
<a href="mailto:energy@ecologyaction.ca">energy@ecologyaction.ca</a></h5>

</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>

<script type="text/javascript">
jQuery(document).ready(function() { jQuery("a.sc-modal-link").fancybox({ "hideOnContentClick": true }); });
</script>
  • <p class="black-text">SMART METERING allows consumers to<br>make more informed choices about when<br>to use electricity.</p>

<p>Water heaters, refrigeration equipment,<br>even electric cars, can be set to charge when<br>extra power is available and slow down<br>when renewable production declines.</p>

<a class="sc-button sc-modal-link alignleft light" style=" width: 150px; " href="#sc-modal-window-modal25">READ MORE</a>

<div style="display: none;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div id="sc-modal-window-modal25" class="sc-modal-content entry-content content-style" style="position:relative; width:600px; height:350px;">
<h3>READ MORE: Modernize Our Grid</h3>

<h1>OUR EVOLVING GRID</h1>

<p>Our local electricity system has evolved from many small community and industrial power grids into a single province-wide electricity system. As well, our provincial grid is connected to a North American system that continues to evolve. Always a politically charged subject, our electricity grid development was shaped throughout the 20th century by the forces of modernization, industrialization and global energy price shocks. (For a good historical account, see: Power Failure?, by Richard Starr, Formac Publishing, 2011.) The 21st century will continue this process as we transition to fossil free electricity.</p>

<p>Drawing upon renewable energy will drive further changes to the system of transmission and distribution lines around the globe, including Nova Scotia. Because generation sources will be more variable, smaller and distributed over the grid, it will have to be strengthened to ensure that local grid generation and demand remain in balance.</p>

<p>The North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC), has begun to explore the implications of the coming electricity system changes. Even this cautious, business-as-usual organization concludes: </p>

<p>
• The timing of carbon reduction targets will require an unprecedented shift in North America's resource mix;<br>
• Regional solutions are needed to respond to climate change initiatives, driven by unique system characteristics<br> 
 and existing infrastructure;<br>
• The addition of new resources increases the need for transmission and energy storage and balancing reserves;<br>
• Carbon reduction from increasing demand-side management must be balanced against potential<br>
 reliability impacts;<br>
• Climate change efforts that increasingly depend on distribution system options and applications can, in aggregate, impact power system reliability. Clearly, change is in the wind for our entire electricity system.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://www.nerc.com/files/ricci_2010.pdf">http://www.nerc.com/files/ricci_2010.pdf</a></h5>


<h1>DISTRIBUTION GRID</h1>

<p>Adding many small energy sources to our distribution grid - the lines that bring electricity to buildings within our communities - will require change. Lines that were installed to deliver electricity in one direction may ultimately have to operate in both directions. New standards to maintain reliability and safety have been developed and the implications of increased local electricity production understood. For a good general discussion, see:</p>

<h5><a href="http://www.ilsr.org/political-and-technical-advantages-distributed-generation/">http://www.ilsr.org/political-and-technical-advantages-distributed-generation/</a></h5>


<p>Power utilities control the level of distribution grid generation to maintain accepted levels of reliability. As distributed generation increases, new controls and methods of maintaining a reliable power grid will permit greater levels of distributed generation. You can look at the distribution grid capacity in your Nova Scotia neighborhood here:</p>

<h5><a href="http://www.nspower.ca/en/home/environment/renewableenergy/comfit/capacity.aspx">http://www.nspower.ca/en/home/environment/renewableenergy/comfit/capacity.aspx</a></h5>


<h1>TRANSMISSION GRID</h1>

<p>The Nova Scotia transmission grid connects large generators in Cape Breton, Trenton and Halifax to large load centers in the province. These include large industrial consumers like pulp mills and large communities, in particular the urban/suburban core of Halifax Regional Municipality (HRM).</p> 

<p>As the location and quantity of power generation shifts, so will our transmission system have to change. In particular, with variable resources like wind, additional transmission capacity will be required to connect and deliver more wind energy.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/EM/Wind/NS-Wind-Integration-Study-FINAL.pdf">http://www.gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/EM/Wind/NS-Wind-Integration-Study-FINAL.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://oasis.nspower.ca/site-nsp/media/Oasis/2012%2010%20Year%20System%20Outlook%20Report%20June%2029%202012.pdf">http://oasis.nspower.ca/site-nsp/media/Oasis/2012%2010%20Year%20System%20Outlook%20Report%20June%2029%202012.pdf</a><br>
<a href="http://www.uwig.org/nbso_wind_study_project_final_summary_report_may_2007.pdf">http://www.uwig.org/nbso_wind_study_project_final_summary_report_may_2007.pdf</a>
</h5>

<h1>REGIONALIZE</h1>

<p>Variable renewable energy, especially wind energy, rises and falls on a day to day basis over the length of Nova Scotia. Over a larger area, this effect is moderated. To take best advantage of wind energy, good regional transmission connections are required to move excess wind energy to areas where renewable generation is low.</p>

<p>Over large enough areas, good transmission and wind energy development can meet the demands for reliable electricity with little fossil backup or storage to very large metropolitan areas as shown for recent studies of both the PJM (Pennsylvania, Jersey and Maryland) the New York interconnection regions.</p> 

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://green.wiwo.de/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/BudischakEtAl-2013-CostMinimizedWindSolarPJM.pdf">http://green.wiwo.de/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/BudischakEtAl-2013-CostMinimizedWindSolarPJM.pdf</a></h5>

<p>(Cory Budischak, DeAnna Sewell, Heather Thomson, Leon Mach, Dana E. Veron, Willett Kempton. Cost-minimized combinations of wind power, solar power and electrochemical storage, powering the grid up to 99.9% of the time. Journal of Power Sources, 2013; 225: 60 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.09.054)</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=how-to-power-the-world&page=2">http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=how-to-power-the-world&page=2</a></h5>

<p>Nova Scotia's transmission system benefits from connections to New Brunswick and there are significant benefits to having a connection to Newfoundland without consideration of the availability of new hydroelectric power. While development of improved transmission can be costly, the long term benefits increase with the flexibility of the system and the penetration of renewable generation.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.uwig.org/nbso_wind_study_project_final_summary_report_may_2007.pdf">http://www.uwig.org/nbso_wind_study_project_final_summary_report_may_2007.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://nsrenewables.ca/sites/default/files/aeg_transmission_modeling.pdf">http://nsrenewables.ca/sites/default/files/aeg_transmission_modeling.pdf</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.nbso.ca/Public/_private/NBSO%20Discussion%20Paper%20Final%20Pre-release%20Dec%2012,%2020.pdf">http://www.nbso.ca/Public/_private/NBSO%20Discussion%20Paper%20Final%20Pre-release%20Dec%2012,%2020.pdf</a><br>
d: <a href="http://nsrenewables.ca/sites/default/files/aeg_regional_electricity_system_operations.pdf">http://nsrenewables.ca/sites/default/files/aeg_regional_electricity_system_operations.pdf</a>
</h5>

<h1>STORAGE</h1>

<p>Storage systems for electricity offer the ability to save excess renewable generation and hold it for times when there is reduced generation or increased demand. Several technologies offer differing levels of storage capacity:</p>

<h5><a href="http://www.iec.ch/whitepaper/pdf/iecWP-energystorage-LR-en.pdf">http://www.iec.ch/whitepaper/pdf/iecWP-energystorage-LR-en.pdf</a></h5>

<p>Pumped Hydro systems move water between large reservoirs, drawing electricity when pumping water uphill and generating electricity when water is released to the lower reservoir. Many systems operate across North America. Compact underground hydro storage systems have been proposed:</p>

<h5><a href="http://www.launchpnt.com/portfolio/energy/grid-scale-electricity-storage/">http://www.launchpnt.com/portfolio/energy/grid-scale-electricity-storage/</a></h5>

<p>Compressed air energy storage, (CAES), stores compressed gas or air underground to run turbines or feed gas turbines later when extra generation is required.  Two systems have been operating for since 1978 (290 MW Huntorf plant in Germany) and 1991 (110 MW / 26 hours, McIntosh, Alabama), with several more plants under development across North America.</p>

<p>Smaller scale CAES offers significant flexibility and cost savings. These systems use established technology and innovative heat reclamation approaches to be more efficient. A system of this type, by Lightsail energy, is under consideration for a test project in Nova Scotia.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://thechronicleherald.ca/business/139745-compressed-air-may-be-solution-to-energy-storagearey">http://thechronicleherald.ca/business/139745-compressed-air-may-be-solution-to-energy-storagearey</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.lightsail.com/tech/">http://www.lightsail.com/tech/</a>
</h5>

<p>Other potential technologies include storing compressed air in underwater bladders or abandoned mines.On smaller scales, battery systems have been developed and there is much speculation that distributed battery storage will result as battery powered vehicles become more wide spread.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.texastribune.org/2010/11/07/texas-tackles-electricity-storage/">http://www.texastribune.org/2010/11/07/texas-tackles-electricity-storage/</a><br>
b: <a href="http://wind.nrel.gov/public/SeaCon/Proceedings/Copenhagen.Offshore.Wind.2005/documents/papers/PosterW.Kempton_Usingelectricvehiclesasbackupforlarge.pdf">http://wind.nrel.gov/public/SeaCon/Proceedings/Copenhagen.Offshore.Wind.2005/documents/papers/PosterW.Kempton_Usingelectricvehiclesasbackupforlarge.pdf</a>
</h5>

<h1>SMART METERING</h1>

<p>For most consumers today, electricity costs the same regardless of when they use it and simply pay a flat rate for the electricity consumed over a period of a month or two based on a simple electricity meter reading.  Smart metering concepts use meters that can communicate with the consumer and the supplier and keep track of electricity consumption over shorter periods of time.  This allows coordination of electricity supply and demand based on variable price signals and power consumption preferences established by each electricity consumer.</p>

<p>A simple type of smart metering arrangement already exists in Nova Scotia where customers with energy storage heaters are charged based on their time-of-day usage.  The heater stores heat at night when the rate is low and discharges heat during the day when electricity rates are higher. Other appliances, notably electric water heaters can operate on timers to take advantage of the similar pricing.</p>

<h5><a href="http://www.nspower.ca/en/home/residential/homeheatingproducts/electricthermalstorage/default.aspx">http://www.nspower.ca/en/home/residential/homeheatingproducts/electricthermalstorage/default.aspx</a></h5>

<p>Smart metering extends these concepts so that the rates may be adjusted depending on the availability of renewable electricity with large collections of time flexible appliances assembled into virtual power plants. </p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://canmetenergy.nrcan.gc.ca/sites/canmetenergy.nrcan.gc.ca/files/files/pubs/2013-057_en.pdf">http://canmetenergy.nrcan.gc.ca/sites/canmetenergy.nrcan.gc.ca/files/files/pubs/2013-057_en.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/energy/science/programs-funding/2048">http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/energy/science/programs-funding/2048</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.scc.ca/sites/default/files/publications/Smart-Grid-Report_FINALOCT2_EN.pdf">http://www.scc.ca/sites/default/files/publications/Smart-Grid-Report_FINALOCT2_EN.pdf</a>
</h5>

<h1>DEMAND MANAGEMENT</h1>

<p>Many energy systems that use electricity through battery charging or directly to produce heat or cold can be adapted to effectively store significant energy. These systems allow consumers to control their electricity use and take advantage of lower power rates.  In particular as insulation quality in homes increases, instantaneous need for electricity will be limited to relatively low load lighting and electronics loads.</p>  

<p>Control of water heaters, boilers and all types of refrigeration equipment (at the consumer, retail or industrial level) can store significant energy simply by adjusting the temperature of the heated or cooled material by a few degrees. These "Demand Response" systems applied widely across an electricity system can provide significant effective load shifting without intervention, discomfort or inconvenience to electricity users.</p> 

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://eetd.lbl.gov/news/article/15242/the-building-as-an-energy-storage-device-fast-demand-response-as-a-solution-to-in">http://eetd.lbl.gov/news/article/15242/the-building-as-an-energy-storage-device-fast-demand-response-as-a-solution-to-in</a></h5>

<p>Beyond adjusting control settings for equipment, many systems can build in energy storage to give them greater turn down (or up) capacity. For example, ice storage is widely used to shift air conditioning loads from peak times mid-day to periods of low demand in the evening. As the timeliness of electricity generation becomes more important to a reliable electricity grid, smart grid rules and systems will be implemented to take advantage the demand response potential in our homes and workplaces.</p>

<p></p>
<h5>If you have a comment or want to recommend a link or find a broken link, please email us:<br> 
<a href="mailto:energy@ecologyaction.ca">energy@ecologyaction.ca</a></h5>

</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>

<script type="text/javascript">
jQuery(document).ready(function() { jQuery("a.sc-modal-link").fancybox({ "hideOnContentClick": true }); });
</script>
  • <p>By 2030 customers will help balance<br>electricity demand and supply. New appliance<br>technology will change HOW we use energy. </p>

<p class="black-text">We will save money and balance electricity<br>demand by choosing WHEN appliances operate.</p>

<a class="sc-button sc-modal-link alignleft light" style=" width: 150px; " href="#sc-modal-window-modal26">READ MORE</a>

<div style="display: none;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div id="sc-modal-window-modal26" class="sc-modal-content entry-content content-style" style="position:relative; width:600px; height:350px;">
<h3>READ MORE: Modernize Our Grid</h3>

<h1>OUR EVOLVING GRID</h1>

<p>Our local electricity system has evolved from many small community and industrial power grids into a single province-wide electricity system. As well, our provincial grid is connected to a North American system that continues to evolve. Always a politically charged subject, our electricity grid development was shaped throughout the 20th century by the forces of modernization, industrialization and global energy price shocks. (For a good historical account, see: Power Failure?, by Richard Starr, Formac Publishing, 2011.) The 21st century will continue this process as we transition to fossil free electricity.</p>

<p>Drawing upon renewable energy will drive further changes to the system of transmission and distribution lines around the globe, including Nova Scotia. Because generation sources will be more variable, smaller and distributed over the grid, it will have to be strengthened to ensure that local grid generation and demand remain in balance.</p>

<p>The North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC), has begun to explore the implications of the coming electricity system changes. Even this cautious, business-as-usual organization concludes: </p>

<p>
• The timing of carbon reduction targets will require an unprecedented shift in North America's resource mix;<br>
• Regional solutions are needed to respond to climate change initiatives, driven by unique system characteristics<br> 
 and existing infrastructure;<br>
• The addition of new resources increases the need for transmission and energy storage and balancing reserves;<br>
• Carbon reduction from increasing demand-side management must be balanced against potential<br>
 reliability impacts;<br>
• Climate change efforts that increasingly depend on distribution system options and applications can, in aggregate, impact power system reliability. Clearly, change is in the wind for our entire electricity system.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:  <a href="http://www.nerc.com/files/ricci_2010.pdf">http://www.nerc.com/files/ricci_2010.pdf</a></h5>


<h1>DISTRIBUTION GRID</h1>

<p>Adding many small energy sources to our distribution grid - the lines that bring electricity to buildings within our communities - will require change. Lines that were installed to deliver electricity in one direction may ultimately have to operate in both directions. New standards to maintain reliability and safety have been developed and the implications of increased local electricity production understood. For a good general discussion, see:</p>

<h5><a href="http://www.ilsr.org/political-and-technical-advantages-distributed-generation/">http://www.ilsr.org/political-and-technical-advantages-distributed-generation/</a></h5>


<p>Power utilities control the level of distribution grid generation to maintain accepted levels of reliability. As distributed generation increases, new controls and methods of maintaining a reliable power grid will permit greater levels of distributed generation. You can look at the distribution grid capacity in your Nova Scotia neighborhood here:</p>

<h5><a href="http://www.nspower.ca/en/home/environment/renewableenergy/comfit/capacity.aspx">http://www.nspower.ca/en/home/environment/renewableenergy/comfit/capacity.aspx</a></h5>


<h1>TRANSMISSION GRID</h1>

<p>The Nova Scotia transmission grid connects large generators in Cape Breton, Trenton and Halifax to large load centers in the province. These include large industrial consumers like pulp mills and large communities, in particular the urban/suburban core of Halifax Regional Municipality (HRM).</p> 

<p>As the location and quantity of power generation shifts, so will our transmission system have to change. In particular, with variable resources like wind, additional transmission capacity will be required to connect and deliver more wind energy.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/EM/Wind/NS-Wind-Integration-Study-FINAL.pdf">http://www.gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/EM/Wind/NS-Wind-Integration-Study-FINAL.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://oasis.nspower.ca/site-nsp/media/Oasis/2012%2010%20Year%20System%20Outlook%20Report%20June%2029%202012.pdf">http://oasis.nspower.ca/site-nsp/media/Oasis/2012%2010%20Year%20System%20Outlook%20Report%20June%2029%202012.pdf</a><br>
<a href="http://www.uwig.org/nbso_wind_study_project_final_summary_report_may_2007.pdf">http://www.uwig.org/nbso_wind_study_project_final_summary_report_may_2007.pdf</a>
</h5>

<h1>REGIONALIZE</h1>

<p>Variable renewable energy, especially wind energy, rises and falls on a day to day basis over the length of Nova Scotia. Over a larger area, this effect is moderated. To take best advantage of wind energy, good regional transmission connections are required to move excess wind energy to areas where renewable generation is low.</p>

<p>Over large enough areas, good transmission and wind energy development can meet the demands for reliable electricity with little fossil backup or storage to very large metropolitan areas as shown for recent studies of both the PJM (Pennsylvania, Jersey and Maryland) the New York interconnection regions.</p> 

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://green.wiwo.de/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/BudischakEtAl-2013-CostMinimizedWindSolarPJM.pdf">http://green.wiwo.de/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/BudischakEtAl-2013-CostMinimizedWindSolarPJM.pdf</a></h5>

<p>(Cory Budischak, DeAnna Sewell, Heather Thomson, Leon Mach, Dana E. Veron, Willett Kempton. Cost-minimized combinations of wind power, solar power and electrochemical storage, powering the grid up to 99.9% of the time. Journal of Power Sources, 2013; 225: 60 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.09.054)</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=how-to-power-the-world&page=2">http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=how-to-power-the-world&page=2</a></h5>

<p>Nova Scotia's transmission system benefits from connections to New Brunswick and there are significant benefits to having a connection to Newfoundland without consideration of the availability of new hydroelectric power. While development of improved transmission can be costly, the long term benefits increase with the flexibility of the system and the penetration of renewable generation.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.uwig.org/nbso_wind_study_project_final_summary_report_may_2007.pdf">http://www.uwig.org/nbso_wind_study_project_final_summary_report_may_2007.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://nsrenewables.ca/sites/default/files/aeg_transmission_modeling.pdf">http://nsrenewables.ca/sites/default/files/aeg_transmission_modeling.pdf</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.nbso.ca/Public/_private/NBSO%20Discussion%20Paper%20Final%20Pre-release%20Dec%2012,%2020.pdf">http://www.nbso.ca/Public/_private/NBSO%20Discussion%20Paper%20Final%20Pre-release%20Dec%2012,%2020.pdf</a><br>
d: <a href="http://nsrenewables.ca/sites/default/files/aeg_regional_electricity_system_operations.pdf">http://nsrenewables.ca/sites/default/files/aeg_regional_electricity_system_operations.pdf</a>
</h5>

<h1>STORAGE</h1>

<p>Storage systems for electricity offer the ability to save excess renewable generation and hold it for times when there is reduced generation or increased demand. Several technologies offer differing levels of storage capacity:</p>

<h5><a href="http://www.iec.ch/whitepaper/pdf/iecWP-energystorage-LR-en.pdf">http://www.iec.ch/whitepaper/pdf/iecWP-energystorage-LR-en.pdf</a></h5>

<p>Pumped Hydro systems move water between large reservoirs, drawing electricity when pumping water uphill and generating electricity when water is released to the lower reservoir. Many systems operate across North America. Compact underground hydro storage systems have been proposed:</p>

<h5><a href="http://www.launchpnt.com/portfolio/energy/grid-scale-electricity-storage/">http://www.launchpnt.com/portfolio/energy/grid-scale-electricity-storage/</a></h5>

<p>Compressed air energy storage, (CAES), stores compressed gas or air underground to run turbines or feed gas turbines later when extra generation is required.  Two systems have been operating for since 1978 (290 MW Huntorf plant in Germany) and 1991 (110 MW / 26 hours, McIntosh, Alabama), with several more plants under development across North America.</p>

<p>Smaller scale CAES offers significant flexibility and cost savings. These systems use established technology and innovative heat reclamation approaches to be more efficient. A system of this type, by Lightsail energy, is under consideration for a test project in Nova Scotia.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://thechronicleherald.ca/business/139745-compressed-air-may-be-solution-to-energy-storagearey">http://thechronicleherald.ca/business/139745-compressed-air-may-be-solution-to-energy-storagearey</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.lightsail.com/tech/">http://www.lightsail.com/tech/</a>
</h5>

<p>Other potential technologies include storing compressed air in underwater bladders or abandoned mines.On smaller scales, battery systems have been developed and there is much speculation that distributed battery storage will result as battery powered vehicles become more wide spread.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.texastribune.org/2010/11/07/texas-tackles-electricity-storage/">http://www.texastribune.org/2010/11/07/texas-tackles-electricity-storage/</a><br>
b: <a href="http://wind.nrel.gov/public/SeaCon/Proceedings/Copenhagen.Offshore.Wind.2005/documents/papers/PosterW.Kempton_Usingelectricvehiclesasbackupforlarge.pdf">http://wind.nrel.gov/public/SeaCon/Proceedings/Copenhagen.Offshore.Wind.2005/documents/papers/PosterW.Kempton_Usingelectricvehiclesasbackupforlarge.pdf</a>
</h5>

<h1>SMART METERING</h1>

<p>For most consumers today, electricity costs the same regardless of when they use it and simply pay a flat rate for the electricity consumed over a period of a month or two based on a simple electricity meter reading.  Smart metering concepts use meters that can communicate with the consumer and the supplier and keep track of electricity consumption over shorter periods of time.  This allows coordination of electricity supply and demand based on variable price signals and power consumption preferences established by each electricity consumer.</p>

<p>A simple type of smart metering arrangement already exists in Nova Scotia where customers with energy storage heaters are charged based on their time-of-day usage.  The heater stores heat at night when the rate is low and discharges heat during the day when electricity rates are higher. Other appliances, notably electric water heaters can operate on timers to take advantage of the similar pricing.</p>

<h5><a href="http://www.nspower.ca/en/home/residential/homeheatingproducts/electricthermalstorage/default.aspx">http://www.nspower.ca/en/home/residential/homeheatingproducts/electricthermalstorage/default.aspx</a></h5>

<p>Smart metering extends these concepts so that the rates may be adjusted depending on the availability of renewable electricity with large collections of time flexible appliances assembled into virtual power plants. </p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://canmetenergy.nrcan.gc.ca/sites/canmetenergy.nrcan.gc.ca/files/files/pubs/2013-057_en.pdf">http://canmetenergy.nrcan.gc.ca/sites/canmetenergy.nrcan.gc.ca/files/files/pubs/2013-057_en.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/energy/science/programs-funding/2048">http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/energy/science/programs-funding/2048</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.scc.ca/sites/default/files/publications/Smart-Grid-Report_FINALOCT2_EN.pdf">http://www.scc.ca/sites/default/files/publications/Smart-Grid-Report_FINALOCT2_EN.pdf</a>
</h5>

<h1>DEMAND MANAGEMENT</h1>

<p>Many energy systems that use electricity through battery charging or directly to produce heat or cold can be adapted to effectively store significant energy. These systems allow consumers to control their electricity use and take advantage of lower power rates.  In particular as insulation quality in homes increases, instantaneous need for electricity will be limited to relatively low load lighting and electronics loads.</p>  

<p>Control of water heaters, boilers and all types of refrigeration equipment (at the consumer, retail or industrial level) can store significant energy simply by adjusting the temperature of the heated or cooled material by a few degrees. These "Demand Response" systems applied widely across an electricity system can provide significant effective load shifting without intervention, discomfort or inconvenience to electricity users.</p> 

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://eetd.lbl.gov/news/article/15242/the-building-as-an-energy-storage-device-fast-demand-response-as-a-solution-to-in">http://eetd.lbl.gov/news/article/15242/the-building-as-an-energy-storage-device-fast-demand-response-as-a-solution-to-in</a></h5>

<p>Beyond adjusting control settings for equipment, many systems can build in energy storage to give them greater turn down (or up) capacity. For example, ice storage is widely used to shift air conditioning loads from peak times mid-day to periods of low demand in the evening. As the timeliness of electricity generation becomes more important to a reliable electricity grid, smart grid rules and systems will be implemented to take advantage the demand response potential in our homes and workplaces.</p>

<p></p>
<h5>If you have a comment or want to recommend a link or find a broken link, please email us:<br> 
<a href="mailto:energy@ecologyaction.ca">energy@ecologyaction.ca</a></h5>

</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>

<script type="text/javascript">
jQuery(document).ready(function() { jQuery("a.sc-modal-link").fancybox({ "hideOnContentClick": true }); });
</script>
 

Reduce and Retire

Switch The Mix

Modernize Our Grid

Make It Happen

 
 
  • <p class="blue-text">Our FOSSIL FREE journey, follows<br>THREE overlapping PATHS.</p>

<p class="black-text">One step at a time, we must: </p>

<p class="blue-text">1. TEST new IDEAS
<br>2. CHANGE our BEHAVIOUR
<br>3. ADAPT government POLICY</p>

<p class="black-text">Let’s buckle up and get going!</p>

<a class="sc-button sc-modal-link alignleft light" style=" width: 150px; " href="#sc-modal-window-modal27">READ MORE</a>

<div style="display: none;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div id="sc-modal-window-modal27" class="sc-modal-content entry-content content-style" style="position:relative; width:600px; height:350px;">
<h3>READ MORE: Make It Happen</h3>

<h1>THREE PATHS</h1>

<p>It's a big job to shift to fossil free electricity but one step at a time 100% renewable electricity can be a reality by 2030. By starting now, Nova Scotia can benefit from reduced energy costs sooner, set an example for the rest of out country and make a better province for our children. To reach this goal, we will have to test new ideas, change some of our energy habits and adapt government policy.</p>


<h1>TEST NEW IDEAS</h1>

<p>There is no guaranteed out-of-the-box renewable solution for Nova Scotia. How then do we make good choices if we don't know how well some of our options will work? Clearly, we will have to test some new ideas and see how to make them work in Nova Scotia. To find success, we must make reasonable plans and begin by trying.</p> 

<p>There are no shortage of good ideas to test. Examples abound from all points on the compass, so it makes sense to borrow the best and give them a try. Programs like the COMFIT, the FORCE tidal research facility and the work of Efficiency Nova Scotia are examples of ideas that are being tested and refined here in Nova Scotia.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://nsrenewables.ca/feed-tariffs">http://nsrenewables.ca/feed-tariffs</a><br>
b: <a href="http://fundyforce.ca/about/force-test-site-2/">http://fundyforce.ca/about/force-test-site-2/</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.efficiencyns.ca/">http://www.efficiencyns.ca/</a>
</h5>

<h3>Feed In Tariffs</h3>

<p>Feed In Tariffs (FIT) provide fair prices to new renewable energy suppliers. By providing a long term (10 - 20 year) price agreement, energy suppliers can develop new renewable energy supplies in a stable financial setting. Across the world FITs have been successful at giving renewable energy a leg up.</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.wind-works.org/cms/">http://www.wind-works.org/cms/</a></h5>

<h3>POWER POOLs</h3>

<p>POWER POOLs are a way to balance power generation and demand between several utilities over a larger regional grid. With several utilities  operating across Atlantic Canada, the potential for cooperation to minimize operations costs and lead to an efficient transition to clean energy deserves to be investigated.</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.aims.ca/site/media/aims/Atlantic%20Power%20Pool.pdf">http://www.aims.ca/site/media/aims/Atlantic%20Power%20Pool.pdf</a></h5>

<h3>CEDIF</h3>

<p>Community economic development investment funds have been effective in providing initial funding for a number of local enterprises, including wind generation. This is an example of an idea that, tested here, is beginning to work at a large scale and attract interest across Canada.</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.gov.ns.ca/econ/cedif/">http://www.gov.ns.ca/econ/cedif/</a></h5>

<h3>CO-OPs</h3>

<p>Cooperatives have a long history of supporting community development and resilience in Nova Scotia. Energy Co-ops are forming across Canada and are worth a try here in Nova Scotia too.</p>

<h5>Links:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.novascotia.coop/about-us/initiatives/">http://www.novascotia.coop/about-us/initiatives/</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.coopscanada.coop/en/orphan/Renewable-Energy">http://www.coopscanada.coop/en/orphan/Renewable-Energy</a>
</h5>

<h3>CROWDSOURCE</h3>
  
<p>Today's modern communication tools can put ideas and people in touch like never before. Crowd-based initiatives can build pools of creativity, funding, labour and knowledge that help to bring innovative projects to completion.</p>   

<h3>VENTURE</h3> 

<p>Venture capital and financing innovation bedevils the Canadian economy. Endless opinion and research questions the apparent weakness in the ability of Canadians and their businesses to innovate, grow and sustain themselves.Energy and efficiency innovation trade upfront investment off of long term yield and as such are particularly subject to under investment.</p>

<h5>Links:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.deloitte.com/view/en_CA/ca/insights/insights-and-issues/the-future-of-productivity-2011/index.htm">http://www.deloitte.com/view/en_CA/ca/insights/insights-and-issues/the-future-of-productivity-2011/index.htm</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.deloitte.com/view/en_CA/ca/insights/insights-and-issues/the-future-of-productivity-2012/index.htm">http://www.deloitte.com/view/en_CA/ca/insights/insights-and-issues/the-future-of-productivity-2012/index.htm</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.deloitte.com/assets/Dcom-Canada/Local%20Assets/Documents/Insights/ca_en_future_of_productivity_2013_report.pdf">http://www.deloitte.com/assets/Dcom-Canada/Local%20Assets/Documents/Insights/ca_en_future_of_productivity_2013_report.pdf</a><br>
<a href="http://www.conferenceboard.ca/hcp/details/innovation.aspx">http://www.conferenceboard.ca/hcp/details/innovation.aspx</a>
</h5>

<p>Financing Innovation by Established Businesses in Canada, The Conference Board of Canada, 52 pages, January 2013, Report by Michael Grant,(http://www.conferenceboard.ca/e-library/abstract.aspx?did=5308)</p>

<p>Government can, in some instances, provide leadership. For example, Nova Scotia Business Incorporated has directed venture capital to local energy related businesses and to bring other energy innovators to Nova Scotia.</p> 

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.novascotiabusiness.com/en/home/locate/sectorinfo/cleantech.aspx">http://www.novascotiabusiness.com/en/home/locate/sectorinfo/cleantech.aspx</a></h5>
 
<h3>PACE</h3> 

<p>Property assessed clean energy (PACE) programs are an innovative way to bring capital to homeowners and small businesses. The concept couples the loan payments for a renewable energy project (like rooftop solar energy) or energy efficiency projects (like a building insulation retrofit) to the associated property. The payment collection is incorporated into the municipal tax collection system the same way property improvement fees are. As such, the payment obligation remains with the property in the same way that the benefit for the improvement remains with the property. PACE programs overcome a principal barrier to energy efficiency - large upfront costs for long term savings. An example of a PACE program is the HRM Solar City program that is bringing solar hot water savings to hundreds of local homes. </p>

<h5>Links:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.halifax.ca/solarcity/">http://www.halifax.ca/solarcity/</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.davidsuzuki.org/publications/reports/2011/property-assessed-payments-for-energy-retrofits/">http://www.davidsuzuki.org/publications/reports/2011/property-assessed-payments-for-energy-retrofits/</a>
</h5>

<h3>PARTNERSHIP</h3> 

<p>It seems obvious, but many hands make light work. Often, players in the energy sector in Nova Scotia and across the Maritimes  adopt adversarial roles when approaching new projects.  Witness the acrimony and mistrust that emerges when new projects are proposed. Building partnerships openly and publicly can help build trust and lead to more ambitious, beneficial and successful projects. Depoliticizing energy choices can help lead to more enduring partnerships. An independent Energy Planning Authority would help by discussing long term energy options outside of the current stage where players (NSPI, Government, Opposition, UARB, public and private stakeholders) act with often conflicting short term interests.</p>

<p>For further discussion, see our report: “Electricity and Nova Scotia's Future: Hurdles and Opportunities”</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.ecologyaction.ca/files/images/file/Energy/ElectricityAndNSFuture_LoRes.pdf">http://www.ecologyaction.ca/files/images/file/Energy/ElectricityAndNSFuture_LoRes.pdf</a></h5>

<h3>UNIVERSAL SERVICE PROGRAMS</h3> 

<p>Electricity costs per kilowatt hour are likely to continue to rise. Fossil fuel costs continue to rise even without anticipated carbon prices. Developing Fossil Free infrastructure will cost money and these costs will fall, to significant extent, on the electricity rate. In the long term, rates will stabilize as the infrastructure matures and zero fuel cost renewables come to dominate out electricity supply.</p>

<p>In the interim, energy poverty is unavoidable for low income Nova Scotians. Life without essential electric services, food refrigeration, simple lighting and frequently, heat, is simply not an acceptable choice. To protect low income citizens from having to choose between heating and eating, a Universal Service Program can provide subsidized electricity costs for the lowest income consumers while we work across the province to reduce household energy costs through energy efficiency and insulation improvements. A Universal Service Program could be funded for less than a dollar a month or for 10% of the rebates presently provided to all Nova Scotians under the Your Energy Program.</p>

<p>Read more in our report: “Solving Nova Scotias Electricity Pricing Program: Energy Affordability vs Rising Energy Prices”</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.ecologyaction.ca/files/images/file/Energy/SolvingNSElectricityPricingProblem_LoRes.pdf">http://www.ecologyaction.ca/files/images/file/Energy/SolvingNSElectricityPricingProblem_LoRes.pdf</a></h5>

<h3>CHANGE OUR BEHAVIOR</h3>

<p>Habits prove very challenging to change. Habits formed when fuels were cheap and when double glazing was novel will not change overnight, even when that change can save us money, improve our health and secure our future. But better habits can grow. Witness the evolution of recycling in Nova Scotia over the last several decades. Our present sophisticated waste diversion programs offer excellent models for energy efficiency and renewable energy programs.</p> 

<h5>Links:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.halifax.ca/wrms/wastestrategy/index.html">http://www.halifax.ca/wrms/wastestrategy/index.html</a><br>
b: <a href="http://novascotia.ca/news/release/?id=19991021002">http://novascotia.ca/news/release/?id=19991021002</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.dal.ca/content/dam/dalhousie/pdf/sustainability/NS%20ICI%20Waste%20Management%20Guide%20Final%20(897%20KB).pdf">http://www.dal.ca/content/dam/dalhousie/pdf/sustainability/NS%20ICI%20Waste%20Management%20Guide%20Final%20(897%20KB).pdf</a><br>
d: <a href="http://www.rrfb.com/strategies-and-studies.asp">http://www.rrfb.com/strategies-and-studies.asp</a>
</h5>

<p>When it comes to reducing electricity use, there are many barriers, not the least being that we are often unaware of how much electricity is used by any particular choice we may make. It's like shopping for groceries in a store without prices and only paying your bill every 2 months. We can all start by looking for day to day electricity waste, after all, you are paying for it, so why waste it?  Here are a few suggestions to help get started on looking for electricity waste:</p>

<p>Get to know an energy geek: Some appliances continue to use electricity even when switched off, so get your pal to check suspect appliances with an energy meter.  Some libraries will lend energy meters or buy one yourself. Popular models include the Kill-a-Watt Monitor and the Belkin Conserve Insight Energy Use Monitor.</p> 

<p>Read your main power meter daily: It sounds like a chore, but you will be able to get a feel for how much electricity you use each day. Check out laundry day and see what that electric clothes dryer is costing you.</p>

<p>If you really want to keep an eagle eye on your use, consider having an electricity dashboard installed:</p> 

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.theenergydetective.com/">http://www.theenergydetective.com/</a></h5>

<p>Compare notes with your friends and family. Electricity use can be detailed and confusing to sort out, but by swapping knowledge we can all get a little bit smarter. Beyond simple electricity usage and cost concerns, many other barriers prevent people from adopting new, especially novel, electricity savings behavior. We don't like to take chances on unknown technology, we are concerned about being seen to act beyond normal expectations and many people lack the time, knowledge and confidence to tackle reducing their electricity use.</p>

<p>Some of our large electricity consuming appliances can't be easily monitored, so it helps to know, in general, what items will be some of your bigger electricity consumers. These will include:</p>

<p>
• Electric heat if you have it;<br>
• Electric hot water heaters;<br>
• Refrigerators, air-conditioners, dehumidifiers and freezers;<br>
• Water and sewage pumps;<br>
• Clothes dryers and washing machines.
</p>

<p>For many of these items, the electricity you use depends more on the age, size or efficiency of the item than on how you use it, so our biggest electricity savings choices happen when we get out our wallet. Paying for efficiency in the store can save a bundle over time.</p>  

<h5>Links:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.efficiencyns.ca/">http://www.efficiencyns.ca/</a><br>
b: <a href="http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/home">http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/home</a>
</h5>

<h1>ADAPT GOVERNMENT POLICY</h1>

<p>We have already started our journey to becoming Fossil Free by 2030. Our federal government signed the Copenhagen Accord committing to initial greenhouse gas reductions by 2020 and supporting the scientific understanding that climate change effects must be kept below 2 degrees Celsius, a limit that implies dramatic greenhouse gas emissions for industrialized nations by 2050.</p>

<h5>Links:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://climatechange.gc.ca/cdp15-cop15/default.asp?lang=En&n=970E8B07-1">http://climatechange.gc.ca/cdp15-cop15/default.asp?lang=En&n=970E8B07-1</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/syr/ar4_syr.pdf">http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/syr/ar4_syr.pdf</a>
</h5>

<p>In Nova Scotia, the Environmental Goals and Sustainable Prosperity Act (EGSPA) was passed in 2007 with unanimous approval of all legislature members. The act commits Nova Scotia to achieve established goals by 2020, including among othres, greenhouse gas reductions. Mark Parent, the Conservative environment minister at the time, spearheaded the legislation, and said, "This act recognizes that our environmental assets are the foundation of our long-term prosperity."</p>

<h5>Links:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://gov.ns.ca/nse/egspa/">http://gov.ns.ca/nse/egspa/</a><br>
b: <a href="http://novascotia.ca/news/release/?id=20070322005">http://novascotia.ca/news/release/?id=20070322005</a>
</h5>

<p>Since 2007 several additional policies have been adopted:</p>

<p>
• Fixed limits for GHG emissions from electricity generation;<br>
• A 40% renewable electricity target by 2020 End of life limits on coal plant operations;<br>
• The establishment of an *Independent* energy efficiency utility, Efficiency Nova Scotia;<br>
• Feed-In-Tarifs for Community based organizations.</p>


<h5>Links:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/spps/energy-strategy/Greenhouse-Gas-Target-background.pdf">http://gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/spps/energy-strategy/Greenhouse-Gas-Target-background.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://nsrenewables.ca/feed-tariffs">http://nsrenewables.ca/feed-tariffs</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.ec.gc.ca/lcpe-cepa/default.asp?lang=En&n=1ADECEDE-1">http://www.ec.gc.ca/lcpe-cepa/default.asp?lang=En&n=1ADECEDE-1</a><br>
d: <a href="http://0-fs01.cito.gov.ns.ca.legcat.gov.ns.ca/deposit/b10579424.pdf">http://0-fs01.cito.gov.ns.ca.legcat.gov.ns.ca/deposit/b10579424.pdf</a><br>
e: <a href="http://www.gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/EM/renewable/Wheeler-Renewable-Stakeholder-Consultation-Report.pdf">http://www.gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/EM/renewable/Wheeler-Renewable-Stakeholder-Consultation-Report.pdf</a>
</h5>

<p>It is important that these forward looking policies continue. Beyond these initial policies, further long term targets need to be established to bring fossil free electricity to Nova Scotia:</p>

<h1>Target #1:</h1>
<h3>Generate 100% renewable electricity by 2030</h3>

<p>Ambitious and essential, reducing carbon emissions in Nova Scotia requires 100% renewable electricity. A mix of efficiency, renewable energy generation and grid improvements can attain this goal. A legislated target is required to ensure that this key energy transition is achieved through ongoing action rather than missed by continuing debate and delay.  </p>

<h1>Target #2:</h1>
<h3>Convert 2 coal units to natural gas by 2020<br>
and retire the remaining 6 by 2026.</h3>

<p>While we have flexibility under the federal coal retirement legislation, the communities hosting coal fired power plants continue to live at increased risk for life threatening illness. Converting two units, preferably those in Trenton, to natural gas will reduce unhealthy emissions and provide flexible cost effective generation well suited to work with rising levels of renewable generation. With these converted assets added to existing gas and hydro generation, a mix of new renewables and imported hydro-electricity all remaining coal units can be retired by 2026. </p> 

<h1>Target #3:</h1>
<h3>Increase our electricity productivity by 3% a year</h3>


<p>A key part of making Nova Scotia's electricity Fossil Free by 2030 is to reduce how much electricity we actually use. Recognizing that economic growth will continue, we will have to make more productive use of the electricity that we use. A simple measure to gauge progress is electricity productivity, specifically the amount of economic output per unit of electricity generated.  Based on 2011 data, we produce approximately 3.1 dollars of GDP per kilo-watt hour of electricity generated. By 2030, our energy productivity should be closer to 5.6 $GDP per kilowatt-hour.</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.rmi.org/Knowledge-Center/Library/2009-08_AssessingElectricProductivityGap">http://www.rmi.org/Knowledge-Center/Library/2009-08_AssessingElectricProductivityGap</a></h5>

<h1>Target #4:</h1>
<h3>Establish an independent power planning authority</h3>


<p>At present electricity planning consists of periodic assessments conducted by Nova Scotia Power under the oversight of the Nova Scotia Utility and Review Board. The main obligations of this process are to demonstrate plans to maintain low cost electricity while meeting existing regulatory requirements, including emission requirements and renewable energy requirements. While multiple stakeholders participate in these proceedings it remains at it's core a quasi-judicial hearing and not an ongoing public conversation. As long as this is the case, public mistrust of the utility, the regulator and government targets will persist. An independent energy planning authority would:</p>

<p>
1: Evaluate energy decisions using multiple criteria that includes environmental, social, and other non-cost criteria;<br>
2: Consider long-term implications; <br>
3: Involve the public in meaningful engagement.
</p>

<p>For further discussion, see our report: “Electricity and Nova Scotia's Future: Hurdles and Opportunities”</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.ecologyaction.ca/files/images/file/Energy/ElectricityAndNSFuture_LoRes.pdf">http://www.ecologyaction.ca/files/images/file/Energy/ElectricityAndNSFuture_LoRes.pdf</a></h5>

<h1>Fossil Free 2050</h1>

<p>The imperative to dramatically reduce carbon emissions this century means that beyond Fossil Free electricity, our entire economy must shift to virtually 100% Fossil Free energy supplies. While this has far reaching implications for transportation systems, the inherent inefficiency of internal combustion, the primary use for petroleum in the transportation system, is unavoidably inefficient. 100% renewable energy could supply Nova Scotia's present day electricity use *and* our transportation energy for less than 1/3 of our present day fossil energy use. As such gradual transition to electric transport using a mix of battery, fuel cell and carbon neutral fuel technologies is technically feasible and within economic reach.</p>

<h3>Stay tuned!</h3>

<p></p>
<h5>If you have a comment or want to recommend a link or find a broken link, please email us:<br> 
<a href="mailto:energy@ecologyaction.ca">energy@ecologyaction.ca</a></h5>

</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>

<script type="text/javascript">
jQuery(document).ready(function() { jQuery("a.sc-modal-link").fancybox({ "hideOnContentClick": true }); });
</script>
  • <p class="blue-text">Nova Scotia is bursting with INNOVATION<br>that can help us be fossil free. The TOOLS<br>to achieve change lie with new technology<br>and new ways of THINKING about<br>and SOLVING our problems.</p>

<p class="black-text">To succeed we have to make the effort<br>by testing new policies and new<br>approaches to business.</p>

<a class="sc-button sc-modal-link alignleft light" style=" width: 150px; " href="#sc-modal-window-modal28">READ MORE</a>

<div style="display: none;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div id="sc-modal-window-modal28" class="sc-modal-content entry-content content-style" style="position:relative; width:600px; height:350px;">
<h3>READ MORE: Make It Happen</h3>

<h1>THREE PATHS</h1>

<p>It's a big job to shift to fossil free electricity but one step at a time 100% renewable electricity can be a reality by 2030. By starting now, Nova Scotia can benefit from reduced energy costs sooner, set an example for the rest of out country and make a better province for our children. To reach this goal, we will have to test new ideas, change some of our energy habits and adapt government policy.</p>


<h1>TEST NEW IDEAS</h1>

<p>There is no guaranteed out-of-the-box renewable solution for Nova Scotia. How then do we make good choices if we don't know how well some of our options will work? Clearly, we will have to test some new ideas and see how to make them work in Nova Scotia. To find success, we must make reasonable plans and begin by trying.</p> 

<p>There are no shortage of good ideas to test. Examples abound from all points on the compass, so it makes sense to borrow the best and give them a try. Programs like the COMFIT, the FORCE tidal research facility and the work of Efficiency Nova Scotia are examples of ideas that are being tested and refined here in Nova Scotia.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://nsrenewables.ca/feed-tariffs">http://nsrenewables.ca/feed-tariffs</a><br>
b: <a href="http://fundyforce.ca/about/force-test-site-2/">http://fundyforce.ca/about/force-test-site-2/</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.efficiencyns.ca/">http://www.efficiencyns.ca/</a>
</h5>

<h3>Feed In Tariffs</h3>

<p>Feed In Tariffs (FIT) provide fair prices to new renewable energy suppliers. By providing a long term (10 - 20 year) price agreement, energy suppliers can develop new renewable energy supplies in a stable financial setting. Across the world FITs have been successful at giving renewable energy a leg up.</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.wind-works.org/cms/">http://www.wind-works.org/cms/</a></h5>

<h3>POWER POOLs</h3>

<p>POWER POOLs are a way to balance power generation and demand between several utilities over a larger regional grid. With several utilities  operating across Atlantic Canada, the potential for cooperation to minimize operations costs and lead to an efficient transition to clean energy deserves to be investigated.</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.aims.ca/site/media/aims/Atlantic%20Power%20Pool.pdf">http://www.aims.ca/site/media/aims/Atlantic%20Power%20Pool.pdf</a></h5>

<h3>CEDIF</h3>

<p>Community economic development investment funds have been effective in providing initial funding for a number of local enterprises, including wind generation. This is an example of an idea that, tested here, is beginning to work at a large scale and attract interest across Canada.</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.gov.ns.ca/econ/cedif/">http://www.gov.ns.ca/econ/cedif/</a></h5>

<h3>CO-OPs</h3>

<p>Cooperatives have a long history of supporting community development and resilience in Nova Scotia. Energy Co-ops are forming across Canada and are worth a try here in Nova Scotia too.</p>

<h5>Links:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.novascotia.coop/about-us/initiatives/">http://www.novascotia.coop/about-us/initiatives/</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.coopscanada.coop/en/orphan/Renewable-Energy">http://www.coopscanada.coop/en/orphan/Renewable-Energy</a>
</h5>

<h3>CROWDSOURCE</h3>
  
<p>Today's modern communication tools can put ideas and people in touch like never before. Crowd-based initiatives can build pools of creativity, funding, labour and knowledge that help to bring innovative projects to completion.</p>   

<h3>VENTURE</h3> 

<p>Venture capital and financing innovation bedevils the Canadian economy. Endless opinion and research questions the apparent weakness in the ability of Canadians and their businesses to innovate, grow and sustain themselves.Energy and efficiency innovation trade upfront investment off of long term yield and as such are particularly subject to under investment.</p>

<h5>Links:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.deloitte.com/view/en_CA/ca/insights/insights-and-issues/the-future-of-productivity-2011/index.htm">http://www.deloitte.com/view/en_CA/ca/insights/insights-and-issues/the-future-of-productivity-2011/index.htm</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.deloitte.com/view/en_CA/ca/insights/insights-and-issues/the-future-of-productivity-2012/index.htm">http://www.deloitte.com/view/en_CA/ca/insights/insights-and-issues/the-future-of-productivity-2012/index.htm</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.deloitte.com/assets/Dcom-Canada/Local%20Assets/Documents/Insights/ca_en_future_of_productivity_2013_report.pdf">http://www.deloitte.com/assets/Dcom-Canada/Local%20Assets/Documents/Insights/ca_en_future_of_productivity_2013_report.pdf</a><br>
<a href="http://www.conferenceboard.ca/hcp/details/innovation.aspx">http://www.conferenceboard.ca/hcp/details/innovation.aspx</a>
</h5>

<p>Financing Innovation by Established Businesses in Canada, The Conference Board of Canada, 52 pages, January 2013, Report by Michael Grant,(http://www.conferenceboard.ca/e-library/abstract.aspx?did=5308)</p>

<p>Government can, in some instances, provide leadership. For example, Nova Scotia Business Incorporated has directed venture capital to local energy related businesses and to bring other energy innovators to Nova Scotia.</p> 

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.novascotiabusiness.com/en/home/locate/sectorinfo/cleantech.aspx">http://www.novascotiabusiness.com/en/home/locate/sectorinfo/cleantech.aspx</a></h5>
 
<h3>PACE</h3> 

<p>Property assessed clean energy (PACE) programs are an innovative way to bring capital to homeowners and small businesses. The concept couples the loan payments for a renewable energy project (like rooftop solar energy) or energy efficiency projects (like a building insulation retrofit) to the associated property. The payment collection is incorporated into the municipal tax collection system the same way property improvement fees are. As such, the payment obligation remains with the property in the same way that the benefit for the improvement remains with the property. PACE programs overcome a principal barrier to energy efficiency - large upfront costs for long term savings. An example of a PACE program is the HRM Solar City program that is bringing solar hot water savings to hundreds of local homes. </p>

<h5>Links:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.halifax.ca/solarcity/">http://www.halifax.ca/solarcity/</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.davidsuzuki.org/publications/reports/2011/property-assessed-payments-for-energy-retrofits/">http://www.davidsuzuki.org/publications/reports/2011/property-assessed-payments-for-energy-retrofits/</a>
</h5>

<h3>PARTNERSHIP</h3> 

<p>It seems obvious, but many hands make light work. Often, players in the energy sector in Nova Scotia and across the Maritimes  adopt adversarial roles when approaching new projects.  Witness the acrimony and mistrust that emerges when new projects are proposed. Building partnerships openly and publicly can help build trust and lead to more ambitious, beneficial and successful projects. Depoliticizing energy choices can help lead to more enduring partnerships. An independent Energy Planning Authority would help by discussing long term energy options outside of the current stage where players (NSPI, Government, Opposition, UARB, public and private stakeholders) act with often conflicting short term interests.</p>

<p>For further discussion, see our report: “Electricity and Nova Scotia's Future: Hurdles and Opportunities”</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.ecologyaction.ca/files/images/file/Energy/ElectricityAndNSFuture_LoRes.pdf">http://www.ecologyaction.ca/files/images/file/Energy/ElectricityAndNSFuture_LoRes.pdf</a></h5>

<h3>UNIVERSAL SERVICE PROGRAMS</h3> 

<p>Electricity costs per kilowatt hour are likely to continue to rise. Fossil fuel costs continue to rise even without anticipated carbon prices. Developing Fossil Free infrastructure will cost money and these costs will fall, to significant extent, on the electricity rate. In the long term, rates will stabilize as the infrastructure matures and zero fuel cost renewables come to dominate out electricity supply.</p>

<p>In the interim, energy poverty is unavoidable for low income Nova Scotians. Life without essential electric services, food refrigeration, simple lighting and frequently, heat, is simply not an acceptable choice. To protect low income citizens from having to choose between heating and eating, a Universal Service Program can provide subsidized electricity costs for the lowest income consumers while we work across the province to reduce household energy costs through energy efficiency and insulation improvements. A Universal Service Program could be funded for less than a dollar a month or for 10% of the rebates presently provided to all Nova Scotians under the Your Energy Program.</p>

<p>Read more in our report: “Solving Nova Scotias Electricity Pricing Program: Energy Affordability vs Rising Energy Prices”</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.ecologyaction.ca/files/images/file/Energy/SolvingNSElectricityPricingProblem_LoRes.pdf">http://www.ecologyaction.ca/files/images/file/Energy/SolvingNSElectricityPricingProblem_LoRes.pdf</a></h5>

<h3>CHANGE OUR BEHAVIOR</h3>

<p>Habits prove very challenging to change. Habits formed when fuels were cheap and when double glazing was novel will not change overnight, even when that change can save us money, improve our health and secure our future. But better habits can grow. Witness the evolution of recycling in Nova Scotia over the last several decades. Our present sophisticated waste diversion programs offer excellent models for energy efficiency and renewable energy programs.</p> 

<h5>Links:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.halifax.ca/wrms/wastestrategy/index.html">http://www.halifax.ca/wrms/wastestrategy/index.html</a><br>
b: <a href="http://novascotia.ca/news/release/?id=19991021002">http://novascotia.ca/news/release/?id=19991021002</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.dal.ca/content/dam/dalhousie/pdf/sustainability/NS%20ICI%20Waste%20Management%20Guide%20Final%20(897%20KB).pdf">http://www.dal.ca/content/dam/dalhousie/pdf/sustainability/NS%20ICI%20Waste%20Management%20Guide%20Final%20(897%20KB).pdf</a><br>
d: <a href="http://www.rrfb.com/strategies-and-studies.asp">http://www.rrfb.com/strategies-and-studies.asp</a>
</h5>

<p>When it comes to reducing electricity use, there are many barriers, not the least being that we are often unaware of how much electricity is used by any particular choice we may make. It's like shopping for groceries in a store without prices and only paying your bill every 2 months. We can all start by looking for day to day electricity waste, after all, you are paying for it, so why waste it?  Here are a few suggestions to help get started on looking for electricity waste:</p>

<p>Get to know an energy geek: Some appliances continue to use electricity even when switched off, so get your pal to check suspect appliances with an energy meter.  Some libraries will lend energy meters or buy one yourself. Popular models include the Kill-a-Watt Monitor and the Belkin Conserve Insight Energy Use Monitor.</p> 

<p>Read your main power meter daily: It sounds like a chore, but you will be able to get a feel for how much electricity you use each day. Check out laundry day and see what that electric clothes dryer is costing you.</p>

<p>If you really want to keep an eagle eye on your use, consider having an electricity dashboard installed:</p> 

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.theenergydetective.com/">http://www.theenergydetective.com/</a></h5>

<p>Compare notes with your friends and family. Electricity use can be detailed and confusing to sort out, but by swapping knowledge we can all get a little bit smarter. Beyond simple electricity usage and cost concerns, many other barriers prevent people from adopting new, especially novel, electricity savings behavior. We don't like to take chances on unknown technology, we are concerned about being seen to act beyond normal expectations and many people lack the time, knowledge and confidence to tackle reducing their electricity use.</p>

<p>Some of our large electricity consuming appliances can't be easily monitored, so it helps to know, in general, what items will be some of your bigger electricity consumers. These will include:</p>

<p>
• Electric heat if you have it;<br>
• Electric hot water heaters;<br>
• Refrigerators, air-conditioners, dehumidifiers and freezers;<br>
• Water and sewage pumps;<br>
• Clothes dryers and washing machines.
</p>

<p>For many of these items, the electricity you use depends more on the age, size or efficiency of the item than on how you use it, so our biggest electricity savings choices happen when we get out our wallet. Paying for efficiency in the store can save a bundle over time.</p>  

<h5>Links:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.efficiencyns.ca/">http://www.efficiencyns.ca/</a><br>
b: <a href="http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/home">http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/home</a>
</h5>

<h1>ADAPT GOVERNMENT POLICY</h1>

<p>We have already started our journey to becoming Fossil Free by 2030. Our federal government signed the Copenhagen Accord committing to initial greenhouse gas reductions by 2020 and supporting the scientific understanding that climate change effects must be kept below 2 degrees Celsius, a limit that implies dramatic greenhouse gas emissions for industrialized nations by 2050.</p>

<h5>Links:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://climatechange.gc.ca/cdp15-cop15/default.asp?lang=En&n=970E8B07-1">http://climatechange.gc.ca/cdp15-cop15/default.asp?lang=En&n=970E8B07-1</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/syr/ar4_syr.pdf">http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/syr/ar4_syr.pdf</a>
</h5>

<p>In Nova Scotia, the Environmental Goals and Sustainable Prosperity Act (EGSPA) was passed in 2007 with unanimous approval of all legislature members. The act commits Nova Scotia to achieve established goals by 2020, including among othres, greenhouse gas reductions. Mark Parent, the Conservative environment minister at the time, spearheaded the legislation, and said, "This act recognizes that our environmental assets are the foundation of our long-term prosperity."</p>

<h5>Links:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://gov.ns.ca/nse/egspa/">http://gov.ns.ca/nse/egspa/</a><br>
b: <a href="http://novascotia.ca/news/release/?id=20070322005">http://novascotia.ca/news/release/?id=20070322005</a>
</h5>

<p>Since 2007 several additional policies have been adopted:</p>

<p>
• Fixed limits for GHG emissions from electricity generation;<br>
• A 40% renewable electricity target by 2020 End of life limits on coal plant operations;<br>
• The establishment of an *Independent* energy efficiency utility, Efficiency Nova Scotia;<br>
• Feed-In-Tarifs for Community based organizations.</p>


<h5>Links:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/spps/energy-strategy/Greenhouse-Gas-Target-background.pdf">http://gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/spps/energy-strategy/Greenhouse-Gas-Target-background.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://nsrenewables.ca/feed-tariffs">http://nsrenewables.ca/feed-tariffs</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.ec.gc.ca/lcpe-cepa/default.asp?lang=En&n=1ADECEDE-1">http://www.ec.gc.ca/lcpe-cepa/default.asp?lang=En&n=1ADECEDE-1</a><br>
d: <a href="http://0-fs01.cito.gov.ns.ca.legcat.gov.ns.ca/deposit/b10579424.pdf">http://0-fs01.cito.gov.ns.ca.legcat.gov.ns.ca/deposit/b10579424.pdf</a><br>
e: <a href="http://www.gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/EM/renewable/Wheeler-Renewable-Stakeholder-Consultation-Report.pdf">http://www.gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/EM/renewable/Wheeler-Renewable-Stakeholder-Consultation-Report.pdf</a>
</h5>

<p>It is important that these forward looking policies continue. Beyond these initial policies, further long term targets need to be established to bring fossil free electricity to Nova Scotia:</p>

<h1>Target #1:</h1>
<h3>Generate 100% renewable electricity by 2030</h3>

<p>Ambitious and essential, reducing carbon emissions in Nova Scotia requires 100% renewable electricity. A mix of efficiency, renewable energy generation and grid improvements can attain this goal. A legislated target is required to ensure that this key energy transition is achieved through ongoing action rather than missed by continuing debate and delay.  </p>

<h1>Target #2:</h1>
<h3>Convert 2 coal units to natural gas by 2020<br>
and retire the remaining 6 by 2026.</h3>

<p>While we have flexibility under the federal coal retirement legislation, the communities hosting coal fired power plants continue to live at increased risk for life threatening illness. Converting two units, preferably those in Trenton, to natural gas will reduce unhealthy emissions and provide flexible cost effective generation well suited to work with rising levels of renewable generation. With these converted assets added to existing gas and hydro generation, a mix of new renewables and imported hydro-electricity all remaining coal units can be retired by 2026. </p> 

<h1>Target #3:</h1>
<h3>Increase our electricity productivity by 3% a year</h3>


<p>A key part of making Nova Scotia's electricity Fossil Free by 2030 is to reduce how much electricity we actually use. Recognizing that economic growth will continue, we will have to make more productive use of the electricity that we use. A simple measure to gauge progress is electricity productivity, specifically the amount of economic output per unit of electricity generated.  Based on 2011 data, we produce approximately 3.1 dollars of GDP per kilo-watt hour of electricity generated. By 2030, our energy productivity should be closer to 5.6 $GDP per kilowatt-hour.</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.rmi.org/Knowledge-Center/Library/2009-08_AssessingElectricProductivityGap">http://www.rmi.org/Knowledge-Center/Library/2009-08_AssessingElectricProductivityGap</a></h5>

<h1>Target #4:</h1>
<h3>Establish an independent power planning authority</h3>


<p>At present electricity planning consists of periodic assessments conducted by Nova Scotia Power under the oversight of the Nova Scotia Utility and Review Board. The main obligations of this process are to demonstrate plans to maintain low cost electricity while meeting existing regulatory requirements, including emission requirements and renewable energy requirements. While multiple stakeholders participate in these proceedings it remains at it's core a quasi-judicial hearing and not an ongoing public conversation. As long as this is the case, public mistrust of the utility, the regulator and government targets will persist. An independent energy planning authority would:</p>

<p>
1: Evaluate energy decisions using multiple criteria that includes environmental, social, and other non-cost criteria;<br>
2: Consider long-term implications; <br>
3: Involve the public in meaningful engagement.
</p>

<p>For further discussion, see our report: “Electricity and Nova Scotia's Future: Hurdles and Opportunities”</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.ecologyaction.ca/files/images/file/Energy/ElectricityAndNSFuture_LoRes.pdf">http://www.ecologyaction.ca/files/images/file/Energy/ElectricityAndNSFuture_LoRes.pdf</a></h5>

<h1>Fossil Free 2050</h1>

<p>The imperative to dramatically reduce carbon emissions this century means that beyond Fossil Free electricity, our entire economy must shift to virtually 100% Fossil Free energy supplies. While this has far reaching implications for transportation systems, the inherent inefficiency of internal combustion, the primary use for petroleum in the transportation system, is unavoidably inefficient. 100% renewable energy could supply Nova Scotia's present day electricity use *and* our transportation energy for less than 1/3 of our present day fossil energy use. As such gradual transition to electric transport using a mix of battery, fuel cell and carbon neutral fuel technologies is technically feasible and within economic reach.</p>

<h3>Stay tuned!</h3>

<p></p>
<h5>If you have a comment or want to recommend a link or find a broken link, please email us:<br> 
<a href="mailto:energy@ecologyaction.ca">energy@ecologyaction.ca</a></h5>

</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>

<script type="text/javascript">
jQuery(document).ready(function() { jQuery("a.sc-modal-link").fancybox({ "hideOnContentClick": true }); });
</script>
  • <p class="black-text">We OFTEN make positive changes<br>in our everyday lives.</p>

<p class="blue-text">By carefully examining our daily behaviour,<br>we have developed BETTER HABITS, saved<br>money and improved the environment.</p>

<p class="black-text">We can do the same for our electricity use.</p>

<a class="sc-button sc-modal-link alignleft light" style=" width: 150px; " href="#sc-modal-window-modal29">READ MORE</a>

<div style="display: none;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div id="sc-modal-window-modal29" class="sc-modal-content entry-content content-style" style="position:relative; width:600px; height:350px;">
<h3>READ MORE: Make It Happen</h3>

<h1>THREE PATHS</h1>

<p>It's a big job to shift to fossil free electricity but one step at a time 100% renewable electricity can be a reality by 2030. By starting now, Nova Scotia can benefit from reduced energy costs sooner, set an example for the rest of out country and make a better province for our children. To reach this goal, we will have to test new ideas, change some of our energy habits and adapt government policy.</p>


<h1>TEST NEW IDEAS</h1>

<p>There is no guaranteed out-of-the-box renewable solution for Nova Scotia. How then do we make good choices if we don't know how well some of our options will work? Clearly, we will have to test some new ideas and see how to make them work in Nova Scotia. To find success, we must make reasonable plans and begin by trying.</p> 

<p>There are no shortage of good ideas to test. Examples abound from all points on the compass, so it makes sense to borrow the best and give them a try. Programs like the COMFIT, the FORCE tidal research facility and the work of Efficiency Nova Scotia are examples of ideas that are being tested and refined here in Nova Scotia.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://nsrenewables.ca/feed-tariffs">http://nsrenewables.ca/feed-tariffs</a><br>
b: <a href="http://fundyforce.ca/about/force-test-site-2/">http://fundyforce.ca/about/force-test-site-2/</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.efficiencyns.ca/">http://www.efficiencyns.ca/</a>
</h5>

<h3>Feed In Tariffs</h3>

<p>Feed In Tariffs (FIT) provide fair prices to new renewable energy suppliers. By providing a long term (10 - 20 year) price agreement, energy suppliers can develop new renewable energy supplies in a stable financial setting. Across the world FITs have been successful at giving renewable energy a leg up.</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.wind-works.org/cms/">http://www.wind-works.org/cms/</a></h5>

<h3>POWER POOLs</h3>

<p>POWER POOLs are a way to balance power generation and demand between several utilities over a larger regional grid. With several utilities  operating across Atlantic Canada, the potential for cooperation to minimize operations costs and lead to an efficient transition to clean energy deserves to be investigated.</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.aims.ca/site/media/aims/Atlantic%20Power%20Pool.pdf">http://www.aims.ca/site/media/aims/Atlantic%20Power%20Pool.pdf</a></h5>

<h3>CEDIF</h3>

<p>Community economic development investment funds have been effective in providing initial funding for a number of local enterprises, including wind generation. This is an example of an idea that, tested here, is beginning to work at a large scale and attract interest across Canada.</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.gov.ns.ca/econ/cedif/">http://www.gov.ns.ca/econ/cedif/</a></h5>

<h3>CO-OPs</h3>

<p>Cooperatives have a long history of supporting community development and resilience in Nova Scotia. Energy Co-ops are forming across Canada and are worth a try here in Nova Scotia too.</p>

<h5>Links:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.novascotia.coop/about-us/initiatives/">http://www.novascotia.coop/about-us/initiatives/</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.coopscanada.coop/en/orphan/Renewable-Energy">http://www.coopscanada.coop/en/orphan/Renewable-Energy</a>
</h5>

<h3>CROWDSOURCE</h3>
  
<p>Today's modern communication tools can put ideas and people in touch like never before. Crowd-based initiatives can build pools of creativity, funding, labour and knowledge that help to bring innovative projects to completion.</p>   

<h3>VENTURE</h3> 

<p>Venture capital and financing innovation bedevils the Canadian economy. Endless opinion and research questions the apparent weakness in the ability of Canadians and their businesses to innovate, grow and sustain themselves.Energy and efficiency innovation trade upfront investment off of long term yield and as such are particularly subject to under investment.</p>

<h5>Links:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.deloitte.com/view/en_CA/ca/insights/insights-and-issues/the-future-of-productivity-2011/index.htm">http://www.deloitte.com/view/en_CA/ca/insights/insights-and-issues/the-future-of-productivity-2011/index.htm</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.deloitte.com/view/en_CA/ca/insights/insights-and-issues/the-future-of-productivity-2012/index.htm">http://www.deloitte.com/view/en_CA/ca/insights/insights-and-issues/the-future-of-productivity-2012/index.htm</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.deloitte.com/assets/Dcom-Canada/Local%20Assets/Documents/Insights/ca_en_future_of_productivity_2013_report.pdf">http://www.deloitte.com/assets/Dcom-Canada/Local%20Assets/Documents/Insights/ca_en_future_of_productivity_2013_report.pdf</a><br>
<a href="http://www.conferenceboard.ca/hcp/details/innovation.aspx">http://www.conferenceboard.ca/hcp/details/innovation.aspx</a>
</h5>

<p>Financing Innovation by Established Businesses in Canada, The Conference Board of Canada, 52 pages, January 2013, Report by Michael Grant,(http://www.conferenceboard.ca/e-library/abstract.aspx?did=5308)</p>

<p>Government can, in some instances, provide leadership. For example, Nova Scotia Business Incorporated has directed venture capital to local energy related businesses and to bring other energy innovators to Nova Scotia.</p> 

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.novascotiabusiness.com/en/home/locate/sectorinfo/cleantech.aspx">http://www.novascotiabusiness.com/en/home/locate/sectorinfo/cleantech.aspx</a></h5>
 
<h3>PACE</h3> 

<p>Property assessed clean energy (PACE) programs are an innovative way to bring capital to homeowners and small businesses. The concept couples the loan payments for a renewable energy project (like rooftop solar energy) or energy efficiency projects (like a building insulation retrofit) to the associated property. The payment collection is incorporated into the municipal tax collection system the same way property improvement fees are. As such, the payment obligation remains with the property in the same way that the benefit for the improvement remains with the property. PACE programs overcome a principal barrier to energy efficiency - large upfront costs for long term savings. An example of a PACE program is the HRM Solar City program that is bringing solar hot water savings to hundreds of local homes. </p>

<h5>Links:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.halifax.ca/solarcity/">http://www.halifax.ca/solarcity/</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.davidsuzuki.org/publications/reports/2011/property-assessed-payments-for-energy-retrofits/">http://www.davidsuzuki.org/publications/reports/2011/property-assessed-payments-for-energy-retrofits/</a>
</h5>

<h3>PARTNERSHIP</h3> 

<p>It seems obvious, but many hands make light work. Often, players in the energy sector in Nova Scotia and across the Maritimes  adopt adversarial roles when approaching new projects.  Witness the acrimony and mistrust that emerges when new projects are proposed. Building partnerships openly and publicly can help build trust and lead to more ambitious, beneficial and successful projects. Depoliticizing energy choices can help lead to more enduring partnerships. An independent Energy Planning Authority would help by discussing long term energy options outside of the current stage where players (NSPI, Government, Opposition, UARB, public and private stakeholders) act with often conflicting short term interests.</p>

<p>For further discussion, see our report: “Electricity and Nova Scotia's Future: Hurdles and Opportunities”</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.ecologyaction.ca/files/images/file/Energy/ElectricityAndNSFuture_LoRes.pdf">http://www.ecologyaction.ca/files/images/file/Energy/ElectricityAndNSFuture_LoRes.pdf</a></h5>

<h3>UNIVERSAL SERVICE PROGRAMS</h3> 

<p>Electricity costs per kilowatt hour are likely to continue to rise. Fossil fuel costs continue to rise even without anticipated carbon prices. Developing Fossil Free infrastructure will cost money and these costs will fall, to significant extent, on the electricity rate. In the long term, rates will stabilize as the infrastructure matures and zero fuel cost renewables come to dominate out electricity supply.</p>

<p>In the interim, energy poverty is unavoidable for low income Nova Scotians. Life without essential electric services, food refrigeration, simple lighting and frequently, heat, is simply not an acceptable choice. To protect low income citizens from having to choose between heating and eating, a Universal Service Program can provide subsidized electricity costs for the lowest income consumers while we work across the province to reduce household energy costs through energy efficiency and insulation improvements. A Universal Service Program could be funded for less than a dollar a month or for 10% of the rebates presently provided to all Nova Scotians under the Your Energy Program.</p>

<p>Read more in our report: “Solving Nova Scotias Electricity Pricing Program: Energy Affordability vs Rising Energy Prices”</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.ecologyaction.ca/files/images/file/Energy/SolvingNSElectricityPricingProblem_LoRes.pdf">http://www.ecologyaction.ca/files/images/file/Energy/SolvingNSElectricityPricingProblem_LoRes.pdf</a></h5>

<h3>CHANGE OUR BEHAVIOR</h3>

<p>Habits prove very challenging to change. Habits formed when fuels were cheap and when double glazing was novel will not change overnight, even when that change can save us money, improve our health and secure our future. But better habits can grow. Witness the evolution of recycling in Nova Scotia over the last several decades. Our present sophisticated waste diversion programs offer excellent models for energy efficiency and renewable energy programs.</p> 

<h5>Links:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.halifax.ca/wrms/wastestrategy/index.html">http://www.halifax.ca/wrms/wastestrategy/index.html</a><br>
b: <a href="http://novascotia.ca/news/release/?id=19991021002">http://novascotia.ca/news/release/?id=19991021002</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.dal.ca/content/dam/dalhousie/pdf/sustainability/NS%20ICI%20Waste%20Management%20Guide%20Final%20(897%20KB).pdf">http://www.dal.ca/content/dam/dalhousie/pdf/sustainability/NS%20ICI%20Waste%20Management%20Guide%20Final%20(897%20KB).pdf</a><br>
d: <a href="http://www.rrfb.com/strategies-and-studies.asp">http://www.rrfb.com/strategies-and-studies.asp</a>
</h5>

<p>When it comes to reducing electricity use, there are many barriers, not the least being that we are often unaware of how much electricity is used by any particular choice we may make. It's like shopping for groceries in a store without prices and only paying your bill every 2 months. We can all start by looking for day to day electricity waste, after all, you are paying for it, so why waste it?  Here are a few suggestions to help get started on looking for electricity waste:</p>

<p>Get to know an energy geek: Some appliances continue to use electricity even when switched off, so get your pal to check suspect appliances with an energy meter.  Some libraries will lend energy meters or buy one yourself. Popular models include the Kill-a-Watt Monitor and the Belkin Conserve Insight Energy Use Monitor.</p> 

<p>Read your main power meter daily: It sounds like a chore, but you will be able to get a feel for how much electricity you use each day. Check out laundry day and see what that electric clothes dryer is costing you.</p>

<p>If you really want to keep an eagle eye on your use, consider having an electricity dashboard installed:</p> 

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.theenergydetective.com/">http://www.theenergydetective.com/</a></h5>

<p>Compare notes with your friends and family. Electricity use can be detailed and confusing to sort out, but by swapping knowledge we can all get a little bit smarter. Beyond simple electricity usage and cost concerns, many other barriers prevent people from adopting new, especially novel, electricity savings behavior. We don't like to take chances on unknown technology, we are concerned about being seen to act beyond normal expectations and many people lack the time, knowledge and confidence to tackle reducing their electricity use.</p>

<p>Some of our large electricity consuming appliances can't be easily monitored, so it helps to know, in general, what items will be some of your bigger electricity consumers. These will include:</p>

<p>
• Electric heat if you have it;<br>
• Electric hot water heaters;<br>
• Refrigerators, air-conditioners, dehumidifiers and freezers;<br>
• Water and sewage pumps;<br>
• Clothes dryers and washing machines.
</p>

<p>For many of these items, the electricity you use depends more on the age, size or efficiency of the item than on how you use it, so our biggest electricity savings choices happen when we get out our wallet. Paying for efficiency in the store can save a bundle over time.</p>  

<h5>Links:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.efficiencyns.ca/">http://www.efficiencyns.ca/</a><br>
b: <a href="http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/home">http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/home</a>
</h5>

<h1>ADAPT GOVERNMENT POLICY</h1>

<p>We have already started our journey to becoming Fossil Free by 2030. Our federal government signed the Copenhagen Accord committing to initial greenhouse gas reductions by 2020 and supporting the scientific understanding that climate change effects must be kept below 2 degrees Celsius, a limit that implies dramatic greenhouse gas emissions for industrialized nations by 2050.</p>

<h5>Links:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://climatechange.gc.ca/cdp15-cop15/default.asp?lang=En&n=970E8B07-1">http://climatechange.gc.ca/cdp15-cop15/default.asp?lang=En&n=970E8B07-1</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/syr/ar4_syr.pdf">http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/syr/ar4_syr.pdf</a>
</h5>

<p>In Nova Scotia, the Environmental Goals and Sustainable Prosperity Act (EGSPA) was passed in 2007 with unanimous approval of all legislature members. The act commits Nova Scotia to achieve established goals by 2020, including among othres, greenhouse gas reductions. Mark Parent, the Conservative environment minister at the time, spearheaded the legislation, and said, "This act recognizes that our environmental assets are the foundation of our long-term prosperity."</p>

<h5>Links:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://gov.ns.ca/nse/egspa/">http://gov.ns.ca/nse/egspa/</a><br>
b: <a href="http://novascotia.ca/news/release/?id=20070322005">http://novascotia.ca/news/release/?id=20070322005</a>
</h5>

<p>Since 2007 several additional policies have been adopted:</p>

<p>
• Fixed limits for GHG emissions from electricity generation;<br>
• A 40% renewable electricity target by 2020 End of life limits on coal plant operations;<br>
• The establishment of an *Independent* energy efficiency utility, Efficiency Nova Scotia;<br>
• Feed-In-Tarifs for Community based organizations.</p>


<h5>Links:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/spps/energy-strategy/Greenhouse-Gas-Target-background.pdf">http://gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/spps/energy-strategy/Greenhouse-Gas-Target-background.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://nsrenewables.ca/feed-tariffs">http://nsrenewables.ca/feed-tariffs</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.ec.gc.ca/lcpe-cepa/default.asp?lang=En&n=1ADECEDE-1">http://www.ec.gc.ca/lcpe-cepa/default.asp?lang=En&n=1ADECEDE-1</a><br>
d: <a href="http://0-fs01.cito.gov.ns.ca.legcat.gov.ns.ca/deposit/b10579424.pdf">http://0-fs01.cito.gov.ns.ca.legcat.gov.ns.ca/deposit/b10579424.pdf</a><br>
e: <a href="http://www.gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/EM/renewable/Wheeler-Renewable-Stakeholder-Consultation-Report.pdf">http://www.gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/EM/renewable/Wheeler-Renewable-Stakeholder-Consultation-Report.pdf</a>
</h5>

<p>It is important that these forward looking policies continue. Beyond these initial policies, further long term targets need to be established to bring fossil free electricity to Nova Scotia:</p>

<h1>Target #1:</h1>
<h3>Generate 100% renewable electricity by 2030</h3>

<p>Ambitious and essential, reducing carbon emissions in Nova Scotia requires 100% renewable electricity. A mix of efficiency, renewable energy generation and grid improvements can attain this goal. A legislated target is required to ensure that this key energy transition is achieved through ongoing action rather than missed by continuing debate and delay.  </p>

<h1>Target #2:</h1>
<h3>Convert 2 coal units to natural gas by 2020<br>
and retire the remaining 6 by 2026.</h3>

<p>While we have flexibility under the federal coal retirement legislation, the communities hosting coal fired power plants continue to live at increased risk for life threatening illness. Converting two units, preferably those in Trenton, to natural gas will reduce unhealthy emissions and provide flexible cost effective generation well suited to work with rising levels of renewable generation. With these converted assets added to existing gas and hydro generation, a mix of new renewables and imported hydro-electricity all remaining coal units can be retired by 2026. </p> 

<h1>Target #3:</h1>
<h3>Increase our electricity productivity by 3% a year</h3>


<p>A key part of making Nova Scotia's electricity Fossil Free by 2030 is to reduce how much electricity we actually use. Recognizing that economic growth will continue, we will have to make more productive use of the electricity that we use. A simple measure to gauge progress is electricity productivity, specifically the amount of economic output per unit of electricity generated.  Based on 2011 data, we produce approximately 3.1 dollars of GDP per kilo-watt hour of electricity generated. By 2030, our energy productivity should be closer to 5.6 $GDP per kilowatt-hour.</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.rmi.org/Knowledge-Center/Library/2009-08_AssessingElectricProductivityGap">http://www.rmi.org/Knowledge-Center/Library/2009-08_AssessingElectricProductivityGap</a></h5>

<h1>Target #4:</h1>
<h3>Establish an independent power planning authority</h3>


<p>At present electricity planning consists of periodic assessments conducted by Nova Scotia Power under the oversight of the Nova Scotia Utility and Review Board. The main obligations of this process are to demonstrate plans to maintain low cost electricity while meeting existing regulatory requirements, including emission requirements and renewable energy requirements. While multiple stakeholders participate in these proceedings it remains at it's core a quasi-judicial hearing and not an ongoing public conversation. As long as this is the case, public mistrust of the utility, the regulator and government targets will persist. An independent energy planning authority would:</p>

<p>
1: Evaluate energy decisions using multiple criteria that includes environmental, social, and other non-cost criteria;<br>
2: Consider long-term implications; <br>
3: Involve the public in meaningful engagement.
</p>

<p>For further discussion, see our report: “Electricity and Nova Scotia's Future: Hurdles and Opportunities”</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.ecologyaction.ca/files/images/file/Energy/ElectricityAndNSFuture_LoRes.pdf">http://www.ecologyaction.ca/files/images/file/Energy/ElectricityAndNSFuture_LoRes.pdf</a></h5>

<h1>Fossil Free 2050</h1>

<p>The imperative to dramatically reduce carbon emissions this century means that beyond Fossil Free electricity, our entire economy must shift to virtually 100% Fossil Free energy supplies. While this has far reaching implications for transportation systems, the inherent inefficiency of internal combustion, the primary use for petroleum in the transportation system, is unavoidably inefficient. 100% renewable energy could supply Nova Scotia's present day electricity use *and* our transportation energy for less than 1/3 of our present day fossil energy use. As such gradual transition to electric transport using a mix of battery, fuel cell and carbon neutral fuel technologies is technically feasible and within economic reach.</p>

<h3>Stay tuned!</h3>

<p></p>
<h5>If you have a comment or want to recommend a link or find a broken link, please email us:<br> 
<a href="mailto:energy@ecologyaction.ca">energy@ecologyaction.ca</a></h5>

</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>

<script type="text/javascript">
jQuery(document).ready(function() { jQuery("a.sc-modal-link").fancybox({ "hideOnContentClick": true }); });
</script>
  • <p class="blue-text">Our power bill lumps weeks of use into<br>a SINGLE cost. We can WATCH how we use<br>each of our appliances, LEARN to use them<br>better and SAVE.</p>

<p class="black-text">Even when electricity prices rise,<br>we CAN control our bill by using LESS. </p>

<a class="sc-button sc-modal-link alignleft light" style=" width: 150px; " href="#sc-modal-window-modal30">READ MORE</a>

<div style="display: none;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div id="sc-modal-window-modal30" class="sc-modal-content entry-content content-style" style="position:relative; width:600px; height:350px;">
<h3>READ MORE: Make It Happen</h3>

<h1>THREE PATHS</h1>

<p>It's a big job to shift to fossil free electricity but one step at a time 100% renewable electricity can be a reality by 2030. By starting now, Nova Scotia can benefit from reduced energy costs sooner, set an example for the rest of out country and make a better province for our children. To reach this goal, we will have to test new ideas, change some of our energy habits and adapt government policy.</p>


<h1>TEST NEW IDEAS</h1>

<p>There is no guaranteed out-of-the-box renewable solution for Nova Scotia. How then do we make good choices if we don't know how well some of our options will work? Clearly, we will have to test some new ideas and see how to make them work in Nova Scotia. To find success, we must make reasonable plans and begin by trying.</p> 

<p>There are no shortage of good ideas to test. Examples abound from all points on the compass, so it makes sense to borrow the best and give them a try. Programs like the COMFIT, the FORCE tidal research facility and the work of Efficiency Nova Scotia are examples of ideas that are being tested and refined here in Nova Scotia.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://nsrenewables.ca/feed-tariffs">http://nsrenewables.ca/feed-tariffs</a><br>
b: <a href="http://fundyforce.ca/about/force-test-site-2/">http://fundyforce.ca/about/force-test-site-2/</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.efficiencyns.ca/">http://www.efficiencyns.ca/</a>
</h5>

<h3>Feed In Tariffs</h3>

<p>Feed In Tariffs (FIT) provide fair prices to new renewable energy suppliers. By providing a long term (10 - 20 year) price agreement, energy suppliers can develop new renewable energy supplies in a stable financial setting. Across the world FITs have been successful at giving renewable energy a leg up.</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.wind-works.org/cms/">http://www.wind-works.org/cms/</a></h5>

<h3>POWER POOLs</h3>

<p>POWER POOLs are a way to balance power generation and demand between several utilities over a larger regional grid. With several utilities  operating across Atlantic Canada, the potential for cooperation to minimize operations costs and lead to an efficient transition to clean energy deserves to be investigated.</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.aims.ca/site/media/aims/Atlantic%20Power%20Pool.pdf">http://www.aims.ca/site/media/aims/Atlantic%20Power%20Pool.pdf</a></h5>

<h3>CEDIF</h3>

<p>Community economic development investment funds have been effective in providing initial funding for a number of local enterprises, including wind generation. This is an example of an idea that, tested here, is beginning to work at a large scale and attract interest across Canada.</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.gov.ns.ca/econ/cedif/">http://www.gov.ns.ca/econ/cedif/</a></h5>

<h3>CO-OPs</h3>

<p>Cooperatives have a long history of supporting community development and resilience in Nova Scotia. Energy Co-ops are forming across Canada and are worth a try here in Nova Scotia too.</p>

<h5>Links:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.novascotia.coop/about-us/initiatives/">http://www.novascotia.coop/about-us/initiatives/</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.coopscanada.coop/en/orphan/Renewable-Energy">http://www.coopscanada.coop/en/orphan/Renewable-Energy</a>
</h5>

<h3>CROWDSOURCE</h3>
  
<p>Today's modern communication tools can put ideas and people in touch like never before. Crowd-based initiatives can build pools of creativity, funding, labour and knowledge that help to bring innovative projects to completion.</p>   

<h3>VENTURE</h3> 

<p>Venture capital and financing innovation bedevils the Canadian economy. Endless opinion and research questions the apparent weakness in the ability of Canadians and their businesses to innovate, grow and sustain themselves.Energy and efficiency innovation trade upfront investment off of long term yield and as such are particularly subject to under investment.</p>

<h5>Links:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.deloitte.com/view/en_CA/ca/insights/insights-and-issues/the-future-of-productivity-2011/index.htm">http://www.deloitte.com/view/en_CA/ca/insights/insights-and-issues/the-future-of-productivity-2011/index.htm</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.deloitte.com/view/en_CA/ca/insights/insights-and-issues/the-future-of-productivity-2012/index.htm">http://www.deloitte.com/view/en_CA/ca/insights/insights-and-issues/the-future-of-productivity-2012/index.htm</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.deloitte.com/assets/Dcom-Canada/Local%20Assets/Documents/Insights/ca_en_future_of_productivity_2013_report.pdf">http://www.deloitte.com/assets/Dcom-Canada/Local%20Assets/Documents/Insights/ca_en_future_of_productivity_2013_report.pdf</a><br>
<a href="http://www.conferenceboard.ca/hcp/details/innovation.aspx">http://www.conferenceboard.ca/hcp/details/innovation.aspx</a>
</h5>

<p>Financing Innovation by Established Businesses in Canada, The Conference Board of Canada, 52 pages, January 2013, Report by Michael Grant,(http://www.conferenceboard.ca/e-library/abstract.aspx?did=5308)</p>

<p>Government can, in some instances, provide leadership. For example, Nova Scotia Business Incorporated has directed venture capital to local energy related businesses and to bring other energy innovators to Nova Scotia.</p> 

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.novascotiabusiness.com/en/home/locate/sectorinfo/cleantech.aspx">http://www.novascotiabusiness.com/en/home/locate/sectorinfo/cleantech.aspx</a></h5>
 
<h3>PACE</h3> 

<p>Property assessed clean energy (PACE) programs are an innovative way to bring capital to homeowners and small businesses. The concept couples the loan payments for a renewable energy project (like rooftop solar energy) or energy efficiency projects (like a building insulation retrofit) to the associated property. The payment collection is incorporated into the municipal tax collection system the same way property improvement fees are. As such, the payment obligation remains with the property in the same way that the benefit for the improvement remains with the property. PACE programs overcome a principal barrier to energy efficiency - large upfront costs for long term savings. An example of a PACE program is the HRM Solar City program that is bringing solar hot water savings to hundreds of local homes. </p>

<h5>Links:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.halifax.ca/solarcity/">http://www.halifax.ca/solarcity/</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.davidsuzuki.org/publications/reports/2011/property-assessed-payments-for-energy-retrofits/">http://www.davidsuzuki.org/publications/reports/2011/property-assessed-payments-for-energy-retrofits/</a>
</h5>

<h3>PARTNERSHIP</h3> 

<p>It seems obvious, but many hands make light work. Often, players in the energy sector in Nova Scotia and across the Maritimes  adopt adversarial roles when approaching new projects.  Witness the acrimony and mistrust that emerges when new projects are proposed. Building partnerships openly and publicly can help build trust and lead to more ambitious, beneficial and successful projects. Depoliticizing energy choices can help lead to more enduring partnerships. An independent Energy Planning Authority would help by discussing long term energy options outside of the current stage where players (NSPI, Government, Opposition, UARB, public and private stakeholders) act with often conflicting short term interests.</p>

<p>For further discussion, see our report: “Electricity and Nova Scotia's Future: Hurdles and Opportunities”</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.ecologyaction.ca/files/images/file/Energy/ElectricityAndNSFuture_LoRes.pdf">http://www.ecologyaction.ca/files/images/file/Energy/ElectricityAndNSFuture_LoRes.pdf</a></h5>

<h3>UNIVERSAL SERVICE PROGRAMS</h3> 

<p>Electricity costs per kilowatt hour are likely to continue to rise. Fossil fuel costs continue to rise even without anticipated carbon prices. Developing Fossil Free infrastructure will cost money and these costs will fall, to significant extent, on the electricity rate. In the long term, rates will stabilize as the infrastructure matures and zero fuel cost renewables come to dominate out electricity supply.</p>

<p>In the interim, energy poverty is unavoidable for low income Nova Scotians. Life without essential electric services, food refrigeration, simple lighting and frequently, heat, is simply not an acceptable choice. To protect low income citizens from having to choose between heating and eating, a Universal Service Program can provide subsidized electricity costs for the lowest income consumers while we work across the province to reduce household energy costs through energy efficiency and insulation improvements. A Universal Service Program could be funded for less than a dollar a month or for 10% of the rebates presently provided to all Nova Scotians under the Your Energy Program.</p>

<p>Read more in our report: “Solving Nova Scotias Electricity Pricing Program: Energy Affordability vs Rising Energy Prices”</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.ecologyaction.ca/files/images/file/Energy/SolvingNSElectricityPricingProblem_LoRes.pdf">http://www.ecologyaction.ca/files/images/file/Energy/SolvingNSElectricityPricingProblem_LoRes.pdf</a></h5>

<h3>CHANGE OUR BEHAVIOR</h3>

<p>Habits prove very challenging to change. Habits formed when fuels were cheap and when double glazing was novel will not change overnight, even when that change can save us money, improve our health and secure our future. But better habits can grow. Witness the evolution of recycling in Nova Scotia over the last several decades. Our present sophisticated waste diversion programs offer excellent models for energy efficiency and renewable energy programs.</p> 

<h5>Links:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.halifax.ca/wrms/wastestrategy/index.html">http://www.halifax.ca/wrms/wastestrategy/index.html</a><br>
b: <a href="http://novascotia.ca/news/release/?id=19991021002">http://novascotia.ca/news/release/?id=19991021002</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.dal.ca/content/dam/dalhousie/pdf/sustainability/NS%20ICI%20Waste%20Management%20Guide%20Final%20(897%20KB).pdf">http://www.dal.ca/content/dam/dalhousie/pdf/sustainability/NS%20ICI%20Waste%20Management%20Guide%20Final%20(897%20KB).pdf</a><br>
d: <a href="http://www.rrfb.com/strategies-and-studies.asp">http://www.rrfb.com/strategies-and-studies.asp</a>
</h5>

<p>When it comes to reducing electricity use, there are many barriers, not the least being that we are often unaware of how much electricity is used by any particular choice we may make. It's like shopping for groceries in a store without prices and only paying your bill every 2 months. We can all start by looking for day to day electricity waste, after all, you are paying for it, so why waste it?  Here are a few suggestions to help get started on looking for electricity waste:</p>

<p>Get to know an energy geek: Some appliances continue to use electricity even when switched off, so get your pal to check suspect appliances with an energy meter.  Some libraries will lend energy meters or buy one yourself. Popular models include the Kill-a-Watt Monitor and the Belkin Conserve Insight Energy Use Monitor.</p> 

<p>Read your main power meter daily: It sounds like a chore, but you will be able to get a feel for how much electricity you use each day. Check out laundry day and see what that electric clothes dryer is costing you.</p>

<p>If you really want to keep an eagle eye on your use, consider having an electricity dashboard installed:</p> 

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.theenergydetective.com/">http://www.theenergydetective.com/</a></h5>

<p>Compare notes with your friends and family. Electricity use can be detailed and confusing to sort out, but by swapping knowledge we can all get a little bit smarter. Beyond simple electricity usage and cost concerns, many other barriers prevent people from adopting new, especially novel, electricity savings behavior. We don't like to take chances on unknown technology, we are concerned about being seen to act beyond normal expectations and many people lack the time, knowledge and confidence to tackle reducing their electricity use.</p>

<p>Some of our large electricity consuming appliances can't be easily monitored, so it helps to know, in general, what items will be some of your bigger electricity consumers. These will include:</p>

<p>
• Electric heat if you have it;<br>
• Electric hot water heaters;<br>
• Refrigerators, air-conditioners, dehumidifiers and freezers;<br>
• Water and sewage pumps;<br>
• Clothes dryers and washing machines.
</p>

<p>For many of these items, the electricity you use depends more on the age, size or efficiency of the item than on how you use it, so our biggest electricity savings choices happen when we get out our wallet. Paying for efficiency in the store can save a bundle over time.</p>  

<h5>Links:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.efficiencyns.ca/">http://www.efficiencyns.ca/</a><br>
b: <a href="http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/home">http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/home</a>
</h5>

<h1>ADAPT GOVERNMENT POLICY</h1>

<p>We have already started our journey to becoming Fossil Free by 2030. Our federal government signed the Copenhagen Accord committing to initial greenhouse gas reductions by 2020 and supporting the scientific understanding that climate change effects must be kept below 2 degrees Celsius, a limit that implies dramatic greenhouse gas emissions for industrialized nations by 2050.</p>

<h5>Links:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://climatechange.gc.ca/cdp15-cop15/default.asp?lang=En&n=970E8B07-1">http://climatechange.gc.ca/cdp15-cop15/default.asp?lang=En&n=970E8B07-1</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/syr/ar4_syr.pdf">http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/syr/ar4_syr.pdf</a>
</h5>

<p>In Nova Scotia, the Environmental Goals and Sustainable Prosperity Act (EGSPA) was passed in 2007 with unanimous approval of all legislature members. The act commits Nova Scotia to achieve established goals by 2020, including among othres, greenhouse gas reductions. Mark Parent, the Conservative environment minister at the time, spearheaded the legislation, and said, "This act recognizes that our environmental assets are the foundation of our long-term prosperity."</p>

<h5>Links:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://gov.ns.ca/nse/egspa/">http://gov.ns.ca/nse/egspa/</a><br>
b: <a href="http://novascotia.ca/news/release/?id=20070322005">http://novascotia.ca/news/release/?id=20070322005</a>
</h5>

<p>Since 2007 several additional policies have been adopted:</p>

<p>
• Fixed limits for GHG emissions from electricity generation;<br>
• A 40% renewable electricity target by 2020 End of life limits on coal plant operations;<br>
• The establishment of an *Independent* energy efficiency utility, Efficiency Nova Scotia;<br>
• Feed-In-Tarifs for Community based organizations.</p>


<h5>Links:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/spps/energy-strategy/Greenhouse-Gas-Target-background.pdf">http://gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/spps/energy-strategy/Greenhouse-Gas-Target-background.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://nsrenewables.ca/feed-tariffs">http://nsrenewables.ca/feed-tariffs</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.ec.gc.ca/lcpe-cepa/default.asp?lang=En&n=1ADECEDE-1">http://www.ec.gc.ca/lcpe-cepa/default.asp?lang=En&n=1ADECEDE-1</a><br>
d: <a href="http://0-fs01.cito.gov.ns.ca.legcat.gov.ns.ca/deposit/b10579424.pdf">http://0-fs01.cito.gov.ns.ca.legcat.gov.ns.ca/deposit/b10579424.pdf</a><br>
e: <a href="http://www.gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/EM/renewable/Wheeler-Renewable-Stakeholder-Consultation-Report.pdf">http://www.gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/EM/renewable/Wheeler-Renewable-Stakeholder-Consultation-Report.pdf</a>
</h5>

<p>It is important that these forward looking policies continue. Beyond these initial policies, further long term targets need to be established to bring fossil free electricity to Nova Scotia:</p>

<h1>Target #1:</h1>
<h3>Generate 100% renewable electricity by 2030</h3>

<p>Ambitious and essential, reducing carbon emissions in Nova Scotia requires 100% renewable electricity. A mix of efficiency, renewable energy generation and grid improvements can attain this goal. A legislated target is required to ensure that this key energy transition is achieved through ongoing action rather than missed by continuing debate and delay.  </p>

<h1>Target #2:</h1>
<h3>Convert 2 coal units to natural gas by 2020<br>
and retire the remaining 6 by 2026.</h3>

<p>While we have flexibility under the federal coal retirement legislation, the communities hosting coal fired power plants continue to live at increased risk for life threatening illness. Converting two units, preferably those in Trenton, to natural gas will reduce unhealthy emissions and provide flexible cost effective generation well suited to work with rising levels of renewable generation. With these converted assets added to existing gas and hydro generation, a mix of new renewables and imported hydro-electricity all remaining coal units can be retired by 2026. </p> 

<h1>Target #3:</h1>
<h3>Increase our electricity productivity by 3% a year</h3>


<p>A key part of making Nova Scotia's electricity Fossil Free by 2030 is to reduce how much electricity we actually use. Recognizing that economic growth will continue, we will have to make more productive use of the electricity that we use. A simple measure to gauge progress is electricity productivity, specifically the amount of economic output per unit of electricity generated.  Based on 2011 data, we produce approximately 3.1 dollars of GDP per kilo-watt hour of electricity generated. By 2030, our energy productivity should be closer to 5.6 $GDP per kilowatt-hour.</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.rmi.org/Knowledge-Center/Library/2009-08_AssessingElectricProductivityGap">http://www.rmi.org/Knowledge-Center/Library/2009-08_AssessingElectricProductivityGap</a></h5>

<h1>Target #4:</h1>
<h3>Establish an independent power planning authority</h3>


<p>At present electricity planning consists of periodic assessments conducted by Nova Scotia Power under the oversight of the Nova Scotia Utility and Review Board. The main obligations of this process are to demonstrate plans to maintain low cost electricity while meeting existing regulatory requirements, including emission requirements and renewable energy requirements. While multiple stakeholders participate in these proceedings it remains at it's core a quasi-judicial hearing and not an ongoing public conversation. As long as this is the case, public mistrust of the utility, the regulator and government targets will persist. An independent energy planning authority would:</p>

<p>
1: Evaluate energy decisions using multiple criteria that includes environmental, social, and other non-cost criteria;<br>
2: Consider long-term implications; <br>
3: Involve the public in meaningful engagement.
</p>

<p>For further discussion, see our report: “Electricity and Nova Scotia's Future: Hurdles and Opportunities”</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.ecologyaction.ca/files/images/file/Energy/ElectricityAndNSFuture_LoRes.pdf">http://www.ecologyaction.ca/files/images/file/Energy/ElectricityAndNSFuture_LoRes.pdf</a></h5>

<h1>Fossil Free 2050</h1>

<p>The imperative to dramatically reduce carbon emissions this century means that beyond Fossil Free electricity, our entire economy must shift to virtually 100% Fossil Free energy supplies. While this has far reaching implications for transportation systems, the inherent inefficiency of internal combustion, the primary use for petroleum in the transportation system, is unavoidably inefficient. 100% renewable energy could supply Nova Scotia's present day electricity use *and* our transportation energy for less than 1/3 of our present day fossil energy use. As such gradual transition to electric transport using a mix of battery, fuel cell and carbon neutral fuel technologies is technically feasible and within economic reach.</p>

<h3>Stay tuned!</h3>

<p></p>
<h5>If you have a comment or want to recommend a link or find a broken link, please email us:<br> 
<a href="mailto:energy@ecologyaction.ca">energy@ecologyaction.ca</a></h5>

</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>

<script type="text/javascript">
jQuery(document).ready(function() { jQuery("a.sc-modal-link").fancybox({ "hideOnContentClick": true }); });
</script>
  • <p class="black-text">Long term policy TARGETS let<br>individuals and organizations PLAN changes<br>and INSPIRE innovative behaviour.</p>

<p class="blue-text">Nova Scotia has good legislated targets for<br>2020. With NEW government targets we can<br>have FOSSIL FREE electricity by 2030.</p>

<a class="sc-button sc-modal-link alignleft light" style=" width: 150px; " href="#sc-modal-window-modal31">READ MORE</a>

<div style="display: none;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div style="width:auto;height:auto;overflow: auto;position:relative;">
<div id="sc-modal-window-modal31" class="sc-modal-content entry-content content-style" style="position:relative; width:600px; height:350px;">
<h3>READ MORE: Make It Happen</h3>

<h1>THREE PATHS</h1>

<p>It's a big job to shift to fossil free electricity but one step at a time 100% renewable electricity can be a reality by 2030. By starting now, Nova Scotia can benefit from reduced energy costs sooner, set an example for the rest of out country and make a better province for our children. To reach this goal, we will have to test new ideas, change some of our energy habits and adapt government policy.</p>


<h1>TEST NEW IDEAS</h1>

<p>There is no guaranteed out-of-the-box renewable solution for Nova Scotia. How then do we make good choices if we don't know how well some of our options will work? Clearly, we will have to test some new ideas and see how to make them work in Nova Scotia. To find success, we must make reasonable plans and begin by trying.</p> 

<p>There are no shortage of good ideas to test. Examples abound from all points on the compass, so it makes sense to borrow the best and give them a try. Programs like the COMFIT, the FORCE tidal research facility and the work of Efficiency Nova Scotia are examples of ideas that are being tested and refined here in Nova Scotia.</p>

<h5>Suggested Reading:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://nsrenewables.ca/feed-tariffs">http://nsrenewables.ca/feed-tariffs</a><br>
b: <a href="http://fundyforce.ca/about/force-test-site-2/">http://fundyforce.ca/about/force-test-site-2/</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.efficiencyns.ca/">http://www.efficiencyns.ca/</a>
</h5>

<h3>Feed In Tariffs</h3>

<p>Feed In Tariffs (FIT) provide fair prices to new renewable energy suppliers. By providing a long term (10 - 20 year) price agreement, energy suppliers can develop new renewable energy supplies in a stable financial setting. Across the world FITs have been successful at giving renewable energy a leg up.</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.wind-works.org/cms/">http://www.wind-works.org/cms/</a></h5>

<h3>POWER POOLs</h3>

<p>POWER POOLs are a way to balance power generation and demand between several utilities over a larger regional grid. With several utilities  operating across Atlantic Canada, the potential for cooperation to minimize operations costs and lead to an efficient transition to clean energy deserves to be investigated.</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.aims.ca/site/media/aims/Atlantic%20Power%20Pool.pdf">http://www.aims.ca/site/media/aims/Atlantic%20Power%20Pool.pdf</a></h5>

<h3>CEDIF</h3>

<p>Community economic development investment funds have been effective in providing initial funding for a number of local enterprises, including wind generation. This is an example of an idea that, tested here, is beginning to work at a large scale and attract interest across Canada.</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.gov.ns.ca/econ/cedif/">http://www.gov.ns.ca/econ/cedif/</a></h5>

<h3>CO-OPs</h3>

<p>Cooperatives have a long history of supporting community development and resilience in Nova Scotia. Energy Co-ops are forming across Canada and are worth a try here in Nova Scotia too.</p>

<h5>Links:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.novascotia.coop/about-us/initiatives/">http://www.novascotia.coop/about-us/initiatives/</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.coopscanada.coop/en/orphan/Renewable-Energy">http://www.coopscanada.coop/en/orphan/Renewable-Energy</a>
</h5>

<h3>CROWDSOURCE</h3>
  
<p>Today's modern communication tools can put ideas and people in touch like never before. Crowd-based initiatives can build pools of creativity, funding, labour and knowledge that help to bring innovative projects to completion.</p>   

<h3>VENTURE</h3> 

<p>Venture capital and financing innovation bedevils the Canadian economy. Endless opinion and research questions the apparent weakness in the ability of Canadians and their businesses to innovate, grow and sustain themselves.Energy and efficiency innovation trade upfront investment off of long term yield and as such are particularly subject to under investment.</p>

<h5>Links:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.deloitte.com/view/en_CA/ca/insights/insights-and-issues/the-future-of-productivity-2011/index.htm">http://www.deloitte.com/view/en_CA/ca/insights/insights-and-issues/the-future-of-productivity-2011/index.htm</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.deloitte.com/view/en_CA/ca/insights/insights-and-issues/the-future-of-productivity-2012/index.htm">http://www.deloitte.com/view/en_CA/ca/insights/insights-and-issues/the-future-of-productivity-2012/index.htm</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.deloitte.com/assets/Dcom-Canada/Local%20Assets/Documents/Insights/ca_en_future_of_productivity_2013_report.pdf">http://www.deloitte.com/assets/Dcom-Canada/Local%20Assets/Documents/Insights/ca_en_future_of_productivity_2013_report.pdf</a><br>
<a href="http://www.conferenceboard.ca/hcp/details/innovation.aspx">http://www.conferenceboard.ca/hcp/details/innovation.aspx</a>
</h5>

<p>Financing Innovation by Established Businesses in Canada, The Conference Board of Canada, 52 pages, January 2013, Report by Michael Grant,(http://www.conferenceboard.ca/e-library/abstract.aspx?did=5308)</p>

<p>Government can, in some instances, provide leadership. For example, Nova Scotia Business Incorporated has directed venture capital to local energy related businesses and to bring other energy innovators to Nova Scotia.</p> 

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.novascotiabusiness.com/en/home/locate/sectorinfo/cleantech.aspx">http://www.novascotiabusiness.com/en/home/locate/sectorinfo/cleantech.aspx</a></h5>
 
<h3>PACE</h3> 

<p>Property assessed clean energy (PACE) programs are an innovative way to bring capital to homeowners and small businesses. The concept couples the loan payments for a renewable energy project (like rooftop solar energy) or energy efficiency projects (like a building insulation retrofit) to the associated property. The payment collection is incorporated into the municipal tax collection system the same way property improvement fees are. As such, the payment obligation remains with the property in the same way that the benefit for the improvement remains with the property. PACE programs overcome a principal barrier to energy efficiency - large upfront costs for long term savings. An example of a PACE program is the HRM Solar City program that is bringing solar hot water savings to hundreds of local homes. </p>

<h5>Links:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.halifax.ca/solarcity/">http://www.halifax.ca/solarcity/</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.davidsuzuki.org/publications/reports/2011/property-assessed-payments-for-energy-retrofits/">http://www.davidsuzuki.org/publications/reports/2011/property-assessed-payments-for-energy-retrofits/</a>
</h5>

<h3>PARTNERSHIP</h3> 

<p>It seems obvious, but many hands make light work. Often, players in the energy sector in Nova Scotia and across the Maritimes  adopt adversarial roles when approaching new projects.  Witness the acrimony and mistrust that emerges when new projects are proposed. Building partnerships openly and publicly can help build trust and lead to more ambitious, beneficial and successful projects. Depoliticizing energy choices can help lead to more enduring partnerships. An independent Energy Planning Authority would help by discussing long term energy options outside of the current stage where players (NSPI, Government, Opposition, UARB, public and private stakeholders) act with often conflicting short term interests.</p>

<p>For further discussion, see our report: “Electricity and Nova Scotia's Future: Hurdles and Opportunities”</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.ecologyaction.ca/files/images/file/Energy/ElectricityAndNSFuture_LoRes.pdf">http://www.ecologyaction.ca/files/images/file/Energy/ElectricityAndNSFuture_LoRes.pdf</a></h5>

<h3>UNIVERSAL SERVICE PROGRAMS</h3> 

<p>Electricity costs per kilowatt hour are likely to continue to rise. Fossil fuel costs continue to rise even without anticipated carbon prices. Developing Fossil Free infrastructure will cost money and these costs will fall, to significant extent, on the electricity rate. In the long term, rates will stabilize as the infrastructure matures and zero fuel cost renewables come to dominate out electricity supply.</p>

<p>In the interim, energy poverty is unavoidable for low income Nova Scotians. Life without essential electric services, food refrigeration, simple lighting and frequently, heat, is simply not an acceptable choice. To protect low income citizens from having to choose between heating and eating, a Universal Service Program can provide subsidized electricity costs for the lowest income consumers while we work across the province to reduce household energy costs through energy efficiency and insulation improvements. A Universal Service Program could be funded for less than a dollar a month or for 10% of the rebates presently provided to all Nova Scotians under the Your Energy Program.</p>

<p>Read more in our report: “Solving Nova Scotias Electricity Pricing Program: Energy Affordability vs Rising Energy Prices”</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.ecologyaction.ca/files/images/file/Energy/SolvingNSElectricityPricingProblem_LoRes.pdf">http://www.ecologyaction.ca/files/images/file/Energy/SolvingNSElectricityPricingProblem_LoRes.pdf</a></h5>

<h3>CHANGE OUR BEHAVIOR</h3>

<p>Habits prove very challenging to change. Habits formed when fuels were cheap and when double glazing was novel will not change overnight, even when that change can save us money, improve our health and secure our future. But better habits can grow. Witness the evolution of recycling in Nova Scotia over the last several decades. Our present sophisticated waste diversion programs offer excellent models for energy efficiency and renewable energy programs.</p> 

<h5>Links:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.halifax.ca/wrms/wastestrategy/index.html">http://www.halifax.ca/wrms/wastestrategy/index.html</a><br>
b: <a href="http://novascotia.ca/news/release/?id=19991021002">http://novascotia.ca/news/release/?id=19991021002</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.dal.ca/content/dam/dalhousie/pdf/sustainability/NS%20ICI%20Waste%20Management%20Guide%20Final%20(897%20KB).pdf">http://www.dal.ca/content/dam/dalhousie/pdf/sustainability/NS%20ICI%20Waste%20Management%20Guide%20Final%20(897%20KB).pdf</a><br>
d: <a href="http://www.rrfb.com/strategies-and-studies.asp">http://www.rrfb.com/strategies-and-studies.asp</a>
</h5>

<p>When it comes to reducing electricity use, there are many barriers, not the least being that we are often unaware of how much electricity is used by any particular choice we may make. It's like shopping for groceries in a store without prices and only paying your bill every 2 months. We can all start by looking for day to day electricity waste, after all, you are paying for it, so why waste it?  Here are a few suggestions to help get started on looking for electricity waste:</p>

<p>Get to know an energy geek: Some appliances continue to use electricity even when switched off, so get your pal to check suspect appliances with an energy meter.  Some libraries will lend energy meters or buy one yourself. Popular models include the Kill-a-Watt Monitor and the Belkin Conserve Insight Energy Use Monitor.</p> 

<p>Read your main power meter daily: It sounds like a chore, but you will be able to get a feel for how much electricity you use each day. Check out laundry day and see what that electric clothes dryer is costing you.</p>

<p>If you really want to keep an eagle eye on your use, consider having an electricity dashboard installed:</p> 

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.theenergydetective.com/">http://www.theenergydetective.com/</a></h5>

<p>Compare notes with your friends and family. Electricity use can be detailed and confusing to sort out, but by swapping knowledge we can all get a little bit smarter. Beyond simple electricity usage and cost concerns, many other barriers prevent people from adopting new, especially novel, electricity savings behavior. We don't like to take chances on unknown technology, we are concerned about being seen to act beyond normal expectations and many people lack the time, knowledge and confidence to tackle reducing their electricity use.</p>

<p>Some of our large electricity consuming appliances can't be easily monitored, so it helps to know, in general, what items will be some of your bigger electricity consumers. These will include:</p>

<p>
• Electric heat if you have it;<br>
• Electric hot water heaters;<br>
• Refrigerators, air-conditioners, dehumidifiers and freezers;<br>
• Water and sewage pumps;<br>
• Clothes dryers and washing machines.
</p>

<p>For many of these items, the electricity you use depends more on the age, size or efficiency of the item than on how you use it, so our biggest electricity savings choices happen when we get out our wallet. Paying for efficiency in the store can save a bundle over time.</p>  

<h5>Links:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://www.efficiencyns.ca/">http://www.efficiencyns.ca/</a><br>
b: <a href="http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/home">http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/home</a>
</h5>

<h1>ADAPT GOVERNMENT POLICY</h1>

<p>We have already started our journey to becoming Fossil Free by 2030. Our federal government signed the Copenhagen Accord committing to initial greenhouse gas reductions by 2020 and supporting the scientific understanding that climate change effects must be kept below 2 degrees Celsius, a limit that implies dramatic greenhouse gas emissions for industrialized nations by 2050.</p>

<h5>Links:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://climatechange.gc.ca/cdp15-cop15/default.asp?lang=En&n=970E8B07-1">http://climatechange.gc.ca/cdp15-cop15/default.asp?lang=En&n=970E8B07-1</a><br>
b: <a href="http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/syr/ar4_syr.pdf">http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/syr/ar4_syr.pdf</a>
</h5>

<p>In Nova Scotia, the Environmental Goals and Sustainable Prosperity Act (EGSPA) was passed in 2007 with unanimous approval of all legislature members. The act commits Nova Scotia to achieve established goals by 2020, including among othres, greenhouse gas reductions. Mark Parent, the Conservative environment minister at the time, spearheaded the legislation, and said, "This act recognizes that our environmental assets are the foundation of our long-term prosperity."</p>

<h5>Links:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://gov.ns.ca/nse/egspa/">http://gov.ns.ca/nse/egspa/</a><br>
b: <a href="http://novascotia.ca/news/release/?id=20070322005">http://novascotia.ca/news/release/?id=20070322005</a>
</h5>

<p>Since 2007 several additional policies have been adopted:</p>

<p>
• Fixed limits for GHG emissions from electricity generation;<br>
• A 40% renewable electricity target by 2020 End of life limits on coal plant operations;<br>
• The establishment of an *Independent* energy efficiency utility, Efficiency Nova Scotia;<br>
• Feed-In-Tarifs for Community based organizations.</p>


<h5>Links:</h5>

<h5>
a: <a href="http://gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/spps/energy-strategy/Greenhouse-Gas-Target-background.pdf">http://gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/spps/energy-strategy/Greenhouse-Gas-Target-background.pdf</a><br>
b: <a href="http://nsrenewables.ca/feed-tariffs">http://nsrenewables.ca/feed-tariffs</a><br>
c: <a href="http://www.ec.gc.ca/lcpe-cepa/default.asp?lang=En&n=1ADECEDE-1">http://www.ec.gc.ca/lcpe-cepa/default.asp?lang=En&n=1ADECEDE-1</a><br>
d: <a href="http://0-fs01.cito.gov.ns.ca.legcat.gov.ns.ca/deposit/b10579424.pdf">http://0-fs01.cito.gov.ns.ca.legcat.gov.ns.ca/deposit/b10579424.pdf</a><br>
e: <a href="http://www.gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/EM/renewable/Wheeler-Renewable-Stakeholder-Consultation-Report.pdf">http://www.gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/EM/renewable/Wheeler-Renewable-Stakeholder-Consultation-Report.pdf</a>
</h5>

<p>It is important that these forward looking policies continue. Beyond these initial policies, further long term targets need to be established to bring fossil free electricity to Nova Scotia:</p>

<h1>Target #1:</h1>
<h3>Generate 100% renewable electricity by 2030</h3>

<p>Ambitious and essential, reducing carbon emissions in Nova Scotia requires 100% renewable electricity. A mix of efficiency, renewable energy generation and grid improvements can attain this goal. A legislated target is required to ensure that this key energy transition is achieved through ongoing action rather than missed by continuing debate and delay.  </p>

<h1>Target #2:</h1>
<h3>Convert 2 coal units to natural gas by 2020<br>
and retire the remaining 6 by 2026.</h3>

<p>While we have flexibility under the federal coal retirement legislation, the communities hosting coal fired power plants continue to live at increased risk for life threatening illness. Converting two units, preferably those in Trenton, to natural gas will reduce unhealthy emissions and provide flexible cost effective generation well suited to work with rising levels of renewable generation. With these converted assets added to existing gas and hydro generation, a mix of new renewables and imported hydro-electricity all remaining coal units can be retired by 2026. </p> 

<h1>Target #3:</h1>
<h3>Increase our electricity productivity by 3% a year</h3>


<p>A key part of making Nova Scotia's electricity Fossil Free by 2030 is to reduce how much electricity we actually use. Recognizing that economic growth will continue, we will have to make more productive use of the electricity that we use. A simple measure to gauge progress is electricity productivity, specifically the amount of economic output per unit of electricity generated.  Based on 2011 data, we produce approximately 3.1 dollars of GDP per kilo-watt hour of electricity generated. By 2030, our energy productivity should be closer to 5.6 $GDP per kilowatt-hour.</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.rmi.org/Knowledge-Center/Library/2009-08_AssessingElectricProductivityGap">http://www.rmi.org/Knowledge-Center/Library/2009-08_AssessingElectricProductivityGap</a></h5>

<h1>Target #4:</h1>
<h3>Establish an independent power planning authority</h3>


<p>At present electricity planning consists of periodic assessments conducted by Nova Scotia Power under the oversight of the Nova Scotia Utility and Review Board. The main obligations of this process are to demonstrate plans to maintain low cost electricity while meeting existing regulatory requirements, including emission requirements and renewable energy requirements. While multiple stakeholders participate in these proceedings it remains at it's core a quasi-judicial hearing and not an ongoing public conversation. As long as this is the case, public mistrust of the utility, the regulator and government targets will persist. An independent energy planning authority would:</p>

<p>
1: Evaluate energy decisions using multiple criteria that includes environmental, social, and other non-cost criteria;<br>
2: Consider long-term implications; <br>
3: Involve the public in meaningful engagement.
</p>

<p>For further discussion, see our report: “Electricity and Nova Scotia's Future: Hurdles and Opportunities”</p>

<h5>Link:  <a href="http://www.ecologyaction.ca/files/images/file/Energy/ElectricityAndNSFuture_LoRes.pdf">http://www.ecologyaction.ca/files/images/file/Energy/ElectricityAndNSFuture_LoRes.pdf</a></h5>

<h1>Fossil Free 2050</h1>

<p>The imperative to dramatically reduce carbon emissions this century means that beyond Fossil Free electricity, our entire economy must shift to virtually 100% Fossil Free energy supplies. While this has far reaching implications for transportation systems, the inherent inefficiency of internal combustion, the primary use for petroleum in the transportation system, is unavoidably inefficient. 100% renewable energy could supply Nova Scotia's present day electricity use *and* our transportation energy for less than 1/3 of our present day fossil energy use. As such gradual transition to electric transport using a mix of battery, fuel cell and carbon neutral fuel technologies is technically feasible and within economic reach.</p>

<h3>Stay tuned!</h3>

<p></p>
<h5>If you have a comment or want to recommend a link or find a broken link, please email us:<br> 
<a href="mailto:energy@ecologyaction.ca">energy@ecologyaction.ca</a></h5>

</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>

<script type="text/javascript">
jQuery(document).ready(function() { jQuery("a.sc-modal-link").fancybox({ "hideOnContentClick": true }); });
</script>